This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and may now be outdated. Archive material is no longer maintained, and some links may not work. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing this information should contact us at: https://info.ahrq.gov. Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your contact information.
Please go to www.ahrq.gov for current information.
1. Edwards R, Peet M, Shay J, et al. Omega-3
polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes
of depressed patients. J Affect Disord 1998; 48(2-3):149-55.
2. Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of
the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression
despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry
3. Horrobin DF, Bennett CN. Depression and
bipolar disorder: relationships to impaired fatty acid and phospholipid
metabolism and to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, immunological
abnormalities, cancer, ageing and osteoporosis. Possible candidate genes.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999; 60(4):217-34.
4. Horrobin DF. The membrane phospholipid
hypothesis as a biochemical basis for the neurodevelopmental concept of
schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1998; 30(3):193-208.
5. Mahadik SP, Mukherjee S, Correnti EE, et al.
Plasma membrane phospholipid and cholesterol distribution of skin fibroblasts
from drug-naive patients at the onset of psychosis. Schizophr Res 1994;
6. Fukuzako H, Fukuzako
T, Hashiguchi T, et al. Changes in levels of phosphorus metabolites in temporal
lobes of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry 1999;
7. Jadad AR. Randomised controlled trials. London: BMJ Publishing Group, 1998.
8. Moher D, Cook DJ, Eastwood S, et al. Improving
the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the
QUOROM statement. Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses. Lancet 1999;
9. Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, et al.
Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding
necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17(1):1-12.
10. Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, et al.
Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated
with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995;
11. Wells GA Shea B O'Connell D Peterson J Welch
V Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of
nonrandomised studies in meta-analyses. 3rd Symposium on Systematic Reviews:
Beyond the Basics; July 2000; Oxford. 2000.
12. Downs SH, Black N. The feasibility of
creating a checklist for the assessment of the methodological quality both of
randomised and non-randomised studies of health care interventions. J Epidemiol Community Health 1998; 52(6):377-84.
13. Fehily AMA. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty
acids and depressive illness. British Reports, Translations and Theses 1981; (3):191.
14. Tur JA, Cortes C, Puig MS, et al. Food
consumption patterns among drug abusers involved in a methadone treatment
program in the Balearic Islands. Rev Esp Nutr Comunitaria 2003; 9(1):20-9.
15. Rapisarda V, Petralia A, De Pasquale C, et al. Assessment of immune system function in schizophrenic
and depressed patients treated with omega-3 fatty acids. Ital J Psychiatry Behav Sci 2000; 10(1):22-5.
16. Anonymous. Lipids. Fortschr Med 1993;
17. Peet M, Horrobin DF. The role of
phospholipids in schizophrenia (Abstract). Society of Biological Psychiatry annual meeting, 7th world congress, July 1-6, 2001. Berlin, Germany.
18. Hirayama T. Life-style and Mortality: A large
Census-based Cohort Study in Japan. Basel, Switzerland: Karger, 1990.
19. Peet M. Nutrition and schizophrenia: an
epidemiological and clinical perspective. Nutr Health 2003; 17(3):211-9.
20. Norman RJ, Flight IHK, Ress MCP. Oestrogen
and progestogen hormone replacement therapy for peri-menopausal and
post-menopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(Suppl 1).
21. Smith C, Collins C, Cyna A, et al.
Complementary and alternative therapies for pain management in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(Suppl 1).
22. Peet M, Poole J, Laugharne J. Infant feeding
and the development of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 1997; 24:255-6.
23. Yang S-C, Chiu W-C, Chen J-R, et al. Dietary
intakes of 4-8 years old children with attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder. Nutr Sci J 1999;
AM, Jensen CL, Voigt RG, et al. Effect of maternal docosahexaenoic acid supplementation
on postpartum depression and information processing. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;
25. Fux M, Benjamin J, Nemets B. A
placebo-controlled cross-over trial of adjunctive EPA in OCD. J Psychiatr Res
26. Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, et al.
Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as
supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002;
27. Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of
omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar
depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002; 159(3):477-9.
28. Wardle J, Rogers P, Judd P, et al. Randomized
trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological
function. Am J Med 2000; 108(7):547-53.
29. Hyldstrup L, Beck AM, Bjornsbo KS, et al. Nutrition and aging. Ugeskr Laeger 2002; 164(49):5757-9.
30. Voigt RG, Llorente AM, Jensen CL, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of
docosahexaenoic acid supplementation in children with
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [comment]. J Pediatr 2001;
31. Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. omega-3 Fatty
acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind,
placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(1):167-9.
32. Hirayama S, Hamazaki T, Terasawa K. Effect of
docosahexaenoic acid-containing food administration on symptoms of
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—A placebo-controlled double-blind
study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58(3):467-73.
KP, Huang SY, Chiu CC, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids in major depressive disorder. A
preliminary double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
34. Marangell LB, Martinez JM, Zboyan HA, et al. A double-blind,
placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid in the
treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(5):996-8.
35. Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A
placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid)
supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in
schizophrenia [comment]. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158(12):2071-4.
36. Peet M, Horrobin DF, Study Group E-EM. A
dose-ranging exploratory study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in
patients with persistent schizophrenic symptoms. J Psychiatr Res 2002;
M, Brind J, Ramchand CN, et al. Two double-blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of
eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2001;
38. Stoll AL, Severus WE, Freeman MP, et al. Omega
3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double-blind,
placebo-controlled trial.[comment]. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56(5):407-12.
39. Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Nagao Y, et al.
Docosahexaenoic acid does not affect aggression of normal volunteers under
nonstressful conditions. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.
Lipids 1998; 33(7):663-7.
40. Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, et al. The
effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults. A
placebo-controlled double-blind study. J Clin Invest 1996; 97(4):1129-33.
41. Richardson AJ, Puri BK. A randomized double-blind,
placebo-controlled study of the effects of supplementation with highly
unsaturated fatty acids on ADHD-related symptoms in children with specific
learning difficulties. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002;
42. Brue AW, Oakland TD, Evans RA. The use of a dietary supplement
combination and an essential fatty acid as an alternative and complementary
treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sci Rev Altern Med 2001; 5(4):187-94.
43. Harding KL, Judah RD, Gant CE. Outcome-based comparison of Ritalin versus
food-supplement treated children with AD/HD. Altern Med Rev 2003; 8(3):319-30.
44. Schachter HM, Pham B, King J, et al. How
efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of
attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. CMAJ
45. Akkerhuis GW, Nolen WA. Lithium-associated psoriasis and omega-3 fatty acids. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(7):1355.
46. Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L, et al. EFA
supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other
disruptive behaviors. Lipids 2003; 38(10):1007-21.
47. Ness AR, Gallacher JEJ, Bennett PD, et al.
Advice to eat fish and mood: A randomised controlled trial in men with angina.
Nutr Neurosci 2003; 6(1):63-5.
48. Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption, the DHA
content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a
cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 2002; 69(1-3):15-29.
49. Hibbeln JR. Fish consumption and major depression [comment].
Lancet 1998; 351(9110):1213.
50. Peet M. International variations in the
outcome of schizophrenia and the prevalence of depression in relation to
national dietary practices: an ecological analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2004;
51. Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Hintikka J, et al.
Fish consumption, depression, and suicidality in a general
population [comment]. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001; 58(5):512-3.
52. Tanskanen A, Hibbeln JR, Tuomilehto J, et al.
Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in the general population in Finland. Psychiatr Serv 2001; 52(4):529-31.
53. Suzuki S, Akechi T,
Kobayashi M, et al. Daily omega-3 fatty acid intake and depression in
Japanese patients with newly diagnosed lung cancer. Br J Cancer 2004;
54. Woo J, Ho SC, Yu ALM. Lifestyle factors and health outcomes in
elderly Hong Kong Chinese aged 70 years and over. Gerontology 2002;
55. Hakkarainen R, Partonen T, Haukka J, et al. Is
low dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids associated with depression? Am J Psychiatry 2004; 161(3):567-9.
56. Noaghiul S, Hibbeln JR. Cross-national
comparisons of seafood consumption and rates of bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(12):2222-7.
57. Silvers KM, Scott KM. Fish consumption and
self-reported physical and mental health status. Public Health Nutr 2002;
58. Hamazak T, Thienprasert A, Kheovichai K et
al. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in elderly Thai
subjects—a placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Neurosci 2002; 5(1):37-41.
C, Markovitz JH, Jacobs Jr DR, et al. Dietary
intake of n-3, n-6 fatty acids and fish: Relationship with hostility in young
adults—The CARDIA study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58(1):24-31.
60. Hibbeln JR. Seafood consumption and homicide
mortality: A cross-national ecological analysis. 4th Congress of the
International Society for the Study of Fatty Acids and Lipids (ISSFAL 2000).
World Rev Nutr Diet 2000; 88:41-6.
61. Amore M, Balista C, McCreadie RG, et al. Can
breast-feeding protect against schizophrenia? Case-control Study. Biol Neonate
62. Leask SJ, Done DJ, Crow TJ, et al. No
association between breast-feeding and adult psychosis in two national birth
cohorts. Br J Psychiatry 2000; 177:218-21.
63. McCreadie RG. The Nithsdale Schizophrenia
Surveys. 16. Breast-feeding and schizophrenia: preliminary results and
hypotheses. Br J Psychiatry 1997; 170:334-7.
T, Okazaki Y, Akaho R, et al. Type of feeding during infancy and later development of
schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2000; 42(1):79-82.
65. Mellor JE, Laugharne JDE, Peet M. Omega-3
fatty acid supplementation in schizophrenic patients. HUM 1996; 11(1):39-46.
66. Christensen O, Christensen E. Fat consumption
and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1988; 78(5):587-91.
67. Maes M, Christophe A, Delanghe J, et al.
Lowered omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and
cholesteryl esters of depressed patients. Psychiatry Res 1999; 85(3):275-91.
68. Peet M, Murphy B, Shay J, et al. Depletion of
omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cell membranes of depressive patients.
Biol Psychiatry 1998; 43(5):315-19.
69. Maes M, Smith R, Christophe A, et al. Fatty
acid composition in major depression: decreased omega 3 fractions in
cholesteryl esters and increased C20: 4 omega 6/C20:5 omega 3 ratio in
cholesteryl esters and phospholipids. J Affect Disord 1996; 38(1):35-46.
70. Tiemeier H, van Tuijl HR, Hofman A, et al.
Plasma fatty acid composition and depression are associated in the elderly: the
Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78(1):40-6.
71. Ellis FR, Sanders TAB. Long chain
polyunsaturated fatty acids in endogenous depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1977; 40(2):168-9.
72. Fehily AMA, Bowey OAM, Ellis FR, et al. Plasma
and erythrocyte membrane long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in endogenous
depression. Neurochem Int 1981; 3(1):37-42.
73. Chiu CC, Huang SY,
Su KP, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid deficit in patients with
bipolar mania. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2003; 13(2):99-103.
74. Mahadik SP, Mukherjee S, Horrobin DF, et al.
Plasma membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition of cultured skin
fibroblasts from schizophrenic patients: comparison with bipolar patients and
normal subjects. Psychiatry Res 1996; 63(2-3):133-42.
75. Langan SM, Farrell PM. Vitamin E, vitamin A
and essential fatty acid status of patients hospitalized for anorexia nervosa.
Am J Clin Nutr 1985; 41(5):1054-60.
76. Holman RT, Adams CE,
Nelson RA, et al. Patients with anorexia nervosa demonstrate deficiencies
of selected essential fatty acids, compensatory changes in nonessential fatty
acids and decreased fluidity of plasma lipids. J Nutr 1995; 125(4):901-7.
77. Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, et al.
Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1995; 62(4):761-768.
78. Mitchell EA, Aman MG, Turbott SH, et al.
Clinical characteristics and serum essential fatty acid levels in hyperactive
children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 1987; 26(8):406-11.
79. Mitchell EA, Lewis S, Cutler DR. Essential
fatty acids and maladjusted behaviour in children. Prostaglandins Leukot Med
80. Hibbeln JR, Umhau
JC, Linnoila M, et al. A replication study of violent and nonviolent subjects:
cerebrospinal fluid metabolites of serotonin and dopamine are predicted by
plasma essential fatty acids. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44(4):243-9.
81. Virkkunen ME, Horrobin DF, Jenkins DK, et al.
Plasma phospholipid essential fatty acids and prostaglandins in alcoholic,
habitually violent, and impulsive offenders. Biol Psychiatry 1987;
82. Buydens-Branchley L, Branchey M, McMakin DL
et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status and aggression in cocaine addicts.
Drug Alcohol Depend 2003; 71(3):319-23.
83. Hibbeln JR, Linnoila M, Umhau JC, et al.
Essential fatty acids predict metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in
cerebrospinal fluid among healthy control subjects, and early- and late-onset
alcoholics. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44(4):235-42.
84. Alling C, Gustavsson L, Kristensson-Aas A et
al. Changes in fatty acid composition of major glycerophospholipids in
erythrocyte membranes from chronic alcoholics during withdrawal. Scand J Clin
Lab Invest 1984; 44(4):283-289.
85. Arvindakshan M, Sitasawad S, Debsikdar V et
al. Essential polyunsaturated fatty acid and lipid peroxide levels in
never-medicated and medicated schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiatry 2003;
86. Khan MM, Evans DR, Gunna V, et al. Reduced erythrocyte membrane essential
fatty acids and increased lipid peroxides in schizophrenia at the
never-medicated first-episode of psychosis and after years of treatment with
antipsychotics. Schizophr Res 2002;
J, Lieverse R, Vreken P, et al. Significantly reduced docosahexaenoic and
docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in erythrocyte membranes from
schizophrenic patients compared with a carefully matched control group. Biol Psychiatry 2001; 49(6):510-22.
M, Laugharne J, Rangarajan N, et al. Depleted
red cell membrane essential fatty acids in drug-treated schizophrenic patients.
J Psychiatr Res 1995; 29(3):227-32.
89. Fischer S, Kissling W, Kuss HJ. Schizophrenic
patients treated with high dose phenothiazine or thioxanthene become deficient
in polyunsaturated fatty acids in their thrombocytes. Biochem Pharmacol 1992;
90. Kaiya H, Horrobin DF, Manku MS, et al.
Essential and other fatty acids in plasma in schizophrenics and normal
individuals from Japan. Biol Psychiatry 1991; 30(4):357-62.
91. Horrobin DF, Manku MS, Morse-Fisher N, et al.
Essential fatty acids in plasma phospholipids in schizophrenics. Biol Psychiatry 1989; 25(5):562-8.
92. Obi FO, Nwanze EA. Fatty acid profiles in
mental disease. Part 1. Linolenate variations in schizophrenia. J Neurol Sci
93. Yao J, Stanley JA, Reddy RD, et al.
Correlations between peripheral polyunsaturated fatty acid content and in vivo
membrane phospholipid metabolites. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 52(8):823-30.
94. Arvindakshan M, Ghate M, Ranjekar PK, et al. Supplementation with a combination of omega-3 fatty
acids and antioxidants (vitamins E and C) improves the outcome of
schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 2003; 62(3):195-204.
95. Ranjekar PK, Hinge A, Hegde MV, et al.
Decreased antioxidant enzymes and membrane essential polyunsaturated fatty
acids in schizophrenic and bipolar mood disorder patients. Psychiatry Res 2003;
96. Vaddadi KS, Gilleard CJ, Soosai E, et al.
Schizophrenia, tardive dyskinesia and essential fatty acids. Schizophr Res
97. Evans DR, Parikh VV, Khan MM, et al. Red blood
cell membrane essential fatty acid metabolism in early psychotic patients
following antipsychotic drug treatment. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty
Acids 2003; 69(6):393-9.
98. Vancassel S, Durand G, Barthelemy C, et al.
Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent
Fatty Acids 2001; 65(1):1-7.
Return to Contents
AHRQ Publication Number 05-E022-1
Current as of July 2005