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Vulnerable Plaques

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Table 1. Inflammatory and other cellular markers that have been evaluated in clinical studies to assess association with CVD clinical outcomes

Marker Studies Have Been Conducted on Population Without Known CAD* Laboratory Method Clinical Outcome Predicted
C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Yes Latex-particle enhanced immunoassay MI, RV, stroke, death
Matrix Metalloproteinase9 (MMP-9) No ELISA Death
Soluble Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (sICAM-1) Yes ELISA MI, stroke, death
Soluble Vascular Cellular Adhesion Mollecule-1  (sVCAM-1) No ELISA MI, stroke, death
Soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin) Yes ELISA MI, stroke, death
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Yes ELISA MI, death
Interleukin-18 (IL-18) No ELISA MI, death
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) No Quantitative enzyme immunoassay  MI, death
Soluble CD40L (immunomodulator) Yes ELISA MI, stroke, death

All of these markers have been studied in populations with known CAD.
CAD: coronary artery disease; MI: myocardial infarction; RV: revascularization; ELISA: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.

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