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Report on the Relative Efficacy of Oral Cancer Therapy for Medicare Beneficiaries Versus Currently Covered Therapy

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Part 4. Thalidomide for Multiple Myeloma (continued)


Included Articles

Alexanian R, Wang LM, Weber DM, et al. VTD (Velcade, Thalidomide, Dexamethasone) as primary therapy for newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #210.

Alexanian R, Weber D, Anagnostopoulos A, et al. Thalidomide with or without dexamethasone for refractory or relapsing multiple myeloma. Seminars in Hematology 2003;40(4 Suppl 4):3-7.

Alexanian R, Weber D, Giralt S, et al. Consolidation therapy of multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone after intensive chemotherapy. Annals of Oncology 2002;13(7):1116-9.

American Cancer Society.  How is multiple myeloma treated?  2005.

American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2005. 

Anagnostopoulos A, Weber D, Rankin K, et al. Thalidomide and dexamethasone for resistant multiple myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 2003;121:768-771.

Anaissie E, Talamo G, Angtuaco E, et al. Avascular necrosis of bone after therapy for multiple myeloma: A study of 561 consecutive patients. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract#3467.

Anderson H, Scarffe JH, Ranson M, et al. VAD chemotherapy as remission induction for multiple myeloma.  British Journal of Cancer 1995;71(2):326-30.

Attal M, Harousseau JL, Leyvraz S, et al. Maintenance treatment with thalidomide after autologous transplantation for myeloma: First analysis of a prospective randomized study of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM 99 02). Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #535.

Attal M, Harousseau JL, Facon T, et al. Single versus double autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.  New England Journal of Medicine 2003;349(26):2495-502.

Badros AZ, Goloubeva O, Ratterree B, et al. Phase II trial of oblimersen sodium (g3139), dexamethasone (dex) and thalidomide (thal) in relapsed multiple myeloma patients (pts). Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #2400.

Badros AZ, Siegel E, Bodenner D, et al. Hypothyroidism in patients with multiple myeloma following treatment with thalidomide. American Journal of Medicine 2002;112(5):412-3.

Barlogie B, Desikan R, Eddlemon P, et al. Extended survival in advanced and refractory multiple myeloma after single-agent thalidomide: identification of prognostic factors in a phase 2 study of 169 patients. Blood 2001;98(2):492-4.

Barlogie B, Rasmussen E, Tricot G, et al. Management of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) failing total therapy 2 (TT 2) according to thalidomide (THAL) randomization. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #1483.

Barlogie B, Shaughnessy J. Early results of total therapy II in multiple myeloma: implications of cytogenetics and FISH. International Journal of Hematology 2002;76(Suppl 1):337-9.

Barlogie B, Smith L, Alexanian R. Effective treatment of advanced multiple myeloma refractory to alkylating agents. New England Journal of Medicine 1984;310(21):1353-6.

Bernardeschi P, Dentico P, Rossi S, et al. Chemoresistant myeloma: phase II clinical study with low-dose thalidomide plus high-dose dexamethasone. Journal of Chemotherapy 2004;16(Suppl 5):90-3.

Biagi JJ, Mileshkin L, Grigg AP, et al. Efficacy of thalidomide therapy for extramedullary relapse of myeloma following allogeneic transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation 2001;28(12):1145-50.

Bibas M, Andriani A, Viva F, et al. Intermittent low doses of thalidomide in the maintenance treatment of multiple myeloma. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #4927.

Blade J, Samson D, Reece D, et al. Criteria for evaluating disease response and progression in patients with multiple myeloma treated by high-dose therapy and haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.  British Journal of Haematology 1998;102(5):1115-23.

Bowcock SJ, Rassam SM, Ward SM, et al. Thromboembolism in patients on thalidomide for myeloma. Hematology 2002;7(1):51-3.

Cavo M, Zamagni E, Tosi P, et al. Superiority of thalidomide and dexamethasone over vincristine-doxorubicindexamethasone (VAD) as primary therapy in preparation for autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma. Blood 2005;106(1):35-9.

Cavo M, Zamagni ETP, Tacchetti P, et al. Superiority of first-line thalidomide-dexamethasone over vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone in preparation for autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract#1489.

Chanan-Khan AA, Miller KC, McCarthy P, et al. A phase II study of velcade (V), doxil (D) in combination with low-dose thalidomide (T) as salvage therapy for patients (pts) with relapsed (rel) or refractory (ref) multiple myeloma (MM) and Waldenstorm Macroglobulinemia (WM): encouraging preliminary results. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #2421.

Chanan-Khan AA, Miller KC, McCarthy P, et al. VAD-t (Vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone and low-dose thalidomide) is an effective initial therapy with high response rates for patients with treatment naïve multiple myeloma (MM). Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #3463.

Ciepluch H, Baran W, Hellmann A. Combination of pamidronate and thalidomide in the therapy of treatment-resistant multiple myeloma. Medical Science Monitor 2002;8(4):P131-6.

Corso A, Lorenzi A, Orlandi E, et al. Advantages of using thalidomide for the management of refractory myeloma patients. Haematologica 2002;87(3):328-8.

Dimopoulos MA, Anagnostopoulos A, Weber D. Treatment of plasma cell dyscrasias with thalidomide and its derivatives.  Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21(23):4444-54.

Dimopoulos MA, Hamilos G, Zomas A, et al. Pulsed cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone: an oral regimen for previously treated patients with multiple myeloma. Hematology Journal 2004;5(2):112-7.

Dimopoulos MA, Repoussis P, Terpos E, et al.   Primary treatment with pulsed melphalan, dexamethasone, thalidomide (MDT) for symptomatic patients with multiple myeloma >75 years of age. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #1482.

Dimopoulos MA, Zervas K, Kouvatseas G, et al. Thalidomide and dexamethasone combination for refractory multiple myeloma. Annals of Oncology 2001;12(7):991-5.

Dimopoulos MA, Pouli A, Zervas K, et al. Prospective randomized comparison of vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) administered as intravenous bolus injection and VAD with liposomal doxorubicin as first-line treatment in multiple myeloma.  Annals of Oncology 2003;14(7):1039-44.

Dmoszynska A, Bojarska-Junak A, Domanski D, et al. Production of proangiogenic cytokines during thalidomide treatment of multiple myeloma. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2002;43(2):401-6.

Durie BG, Salmon SE.  A clinical staging system for multiple myeloma. Correlation of measured myeloma cell mass with presenting clinical features, response to treatment, and survival. Cancer 1975;36(3):842-54.

Durie BG, Stock-Novack, Salmon SE, et al. Prognostic value of pretreatment serum beta 2 microglobulin in myeloma: a Southwest Oncology Group Study. Blood 1990;75(4):823-30.

Eriksson T, Bjorkman S, Hoglund P. Clinical pharmacology of thalidomide. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2001;57(5):365-76.

Facon T, Mary JY, Hulin C, et al. Randomized clinical trial comparing melphalan-prednisone (MP), mp-thalidomide (MP-THAL) and high-dose therapy using melphalan 100 mg/m2 (MEL100) for newly diagnosed myeloma patients aged 65-75 years. interim analysis of the IFM 99-06 trial on 350 patients. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #206.

Fahdi IE, Gaddam V, Saucedo JF, et al. Bradycardia during therapy for multiple myeloma with thalidomide. American Journal of Cardiology 2004;93(8):1052-5.

Fonseca R, Blood E, Rue M et al. Clinical and biologic implications of recurrent genomic aberrations in myeloma. Blood 2003;101(11):4569-75.

Garcia-Sanz R, Gonzalez-Porras JR, Hernandez JM, et al. The oral combination of thalidomide, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (ThaCyDex) is effective in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Leukemia 2004;18(4):856-63.

Greipp PR. Smoldering, asymptomatic stage 1, and indolent myeloma.  Current Treatment Options in Oncology 2000;1(2):119-26.

Greipp PR, San Miguel J, Durie BG, et al. International staging system for multiple myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2005;23(15):3412-20.

Grethlein S.  Multiple myeloma. E-Medicine 2004.

Hall VC, El-Azhary RA, Bouwhuis S, et al. Dermatologic side effects of thalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2003;48(4):548-52.

Hansen OP, Clausen NA, Drivsholm A, et al. Phase III study of intermittent 5-drug regimen (VBCMP) versus intermittent 3-drug regimen (VMP) versus intermittent melphalan and prednisone (MP) in myelomatosis. Scandinavian Journal of Haematology 1985;35(5):518-24.

Harousseau JL. Management of multiple myeloma.  Reviews in Clinical & Experimental Hematology 2002;6(3):253-75.

Hassoun H, Reich L, Klimek VM, et al. Doxorubicin and dexamethasone followed by thalidomide and dexamethasone (AD-TD) as initial therapy for symptomatic patients with multiple myeloma. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #2409.

Hattori Y, Kakimoto T, Okamoto S, et al. Thalidomide-induced severe neutropenia during treatment of multiple myeloma. International Journal of Hematology 2004;79(3):283-8.

He Y, Wheatley K, Clark O, et al.   Early versus deferred treatment for early stage multiple myeloma.  Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005.

Hideshima T, Chauhan D, Shima Y, et al. Thalidomide and its analogs overcome drug resistance of human multiple myeloma cells to conventional therapy. Blood 2000;96(9):2000.

Hollmig K, Stover J, Talamo G, et al. Bortezomib (Velcade™) + Adriamycin™ + Thalidomide + Dexamethasone (VATD) as an effective regimen in patients with refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma (MM). Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #2399.

Hus M, Dmoszynska A, Soroka-Wojtaszko M, et al. Thalidomide treatment of resistant or relapsed multiple myeloma patients. Haematologica 2001;86(4):404-8.

International Myeloma Working Group. Criteria for the classification of monoclonal gammopathies, multiple myeloma and related disorders.  British Journal of Haematology 2003;121(5):749-57.

Jaksic WJ, Trudel S, Chang HQX, et al. t(4;14) Positive multiple myeloma is chemosensitive to dexamethasone and/or thalidomide but not alkylating agents: Rapid relapse and not primary drug resistance explains poor outcomes. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #2417.

Johnston RE, Abdalla SH. Thalidomide in low doses is effective for the treatment of resistant or relapsed multiple myeloma and for plasma cell leukaemia. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2002;43(2):351-4.

Juliusson G, Celsing F, Turesson I, et al. Frequent good partial remissions from thalidomide including best response ever in patients with advanced refractory and relapsed myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 2000;109(1):89-96.

Kasper B, Moehler T, Neben K, et al. Combination therapy of Thalidomide and Peginterferon in patients with progressive multiple myeloma. Annals of Oncology 2004;151:176-77.

Kees M, Dimou G, Sillaber C, et al. Low dose thalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Leukemia & Lymphoma 2003;44(11):1943-6.

Kildahl-Andersen O, Bjark P, Bondevik A, et al. Multiple myeloma in central Norway 1981-1982: a randomized clinical trial of 5-drug combination therapy versus standard therapy. Scandinavian Journal of Haematology  1986;37(3):243-8.

Kildahl-Andersen O, Bjark P, Bondevik A, et al. Multiple myeloma in central and northern Norway 1981-1982: a follow-up study of a randomized clinical trial of 5-drug combination therapy versus standard therapy. European Journal of Haematology 1998;41(1):47-51.

Klueppelberg U, Chen L, Aloba CM, et al. First-line, long-term treatment of multiple myeloma with thalidomide, dexamethasone, and zoledronate in combination (TDZ). Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22(14S):Abstract #6702.

Klueppelberg U, Shapira I, Chen L, et al. Long-term treatment of newly-diagnosed multiple myeloma with low-dose thalidomide, dexamethasone and zoledronate (TDZ). ASCO Annual Meetings 2005;Abstract #6697.

Klueppelberg U, Smith E, Chen L, et al. First-line treatment of multiple myeloma with a combination of thalidomide, dexamethasone, and zoledronate (tdz) in an inner-city population with high HIV prevalence. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #4932.

Kroeger N, Shimoni A, Zagrivnaja M, et al. Low dose thalidomide and donor lymphocyte infusion as adoptive immunotherapy after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #1646.

Kropff MH, Lang N, Bisping G, et al. Hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide in combination with pulsed dexamethasone and thalidomide (HyperCDT) in primary refractory or relapsed multiple myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 2003;122(4):607-16.

Kumar S, Fonseca R, Dispenzieri A, et al. Bone marrow angiogenesis in multiple myeloma: effect of therapy.  British Journal of Haematology. 2002;119(3):665-67.

Kumar S, Gertz MA, Dispenzieri A, et al. Response rate, durability of response, and survival after thalidomide therapy for relapsed multiple myeloma. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2003;78(1):34-9.

Kyle R.   Multiple Myeloma. In: Dollinger M, Rosenbaum E, Cable G, eds. Everybody's Guide to Cancer Therapy; 1997:592-599.

Kyle RA. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Up-to-Date [www.uptodate.com]. Accessed July 15, 2005..

Kyle RA.  "Benign" monoclonal gammopathy―after 20 to 35 years of follow-up.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 1993;68(1):26-36.

Kyle RA, Gertz MA, Witzig TE, et al. Review of 1027 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2003;78(1):21-33.

Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Multiple myeloma . New England Journal of Medicine   2004;351(18):1860-73.

Kyle RA. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of multiple myeloma.  Up-to-Date  [www.uptodate.com]. Accessed July 15, 2005.

Lee CK, Barlogie B, Munshi N, et al. DTPACE: an effective, novel combination chemotherapy with thalidomide for previously treated patients with myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21(14):2732-9.

Lentzsch S, Rogers MS, LeBlanc R, et al. S-3-Amino-phthalimido-glutarimide inhibits angiogenesis and growth of B-cell neoplasias in mice. Cancer Research 2002;62(8):2300-5.

Ludwig H, Drach J, Tóthová E, et al. Thalidomide-Dexamethason versus Melphalan-Prednisolone as first line treatment in elderly patients with multiple myeloma: an interim analysis. ASCO Annual Meetings 2005;Abstract #6537.

Lynch HT, Watson P, Tarantolo S, et al. Phenotypic heterogeneity in multiple myeloma families. Journal of Clinical Oncology 1923;4(685-693).

Mileshkin L, Biagi JJ, Mitchell P, et al. Multicenter phase 2 trial of thalidomide in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: adverse prognostic impact of advanced age. Blood 2003;102(1):69-77.

Mileshkin L, Prince HM, Seymour JF, et al. Serum MUC-1 as a marker of disease status in multiple myeloma patients receiving thalidomide. British Journal of Haematology 2003;123(4):747-8.

Mileshkin LR, Roberts A, Ganju V, et al. Quality of life (QOL) assessment in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM) treated with thalidomide (T) plus celecoxib (Cxb). ASCO Annual Meetings 2005;Abstract #8233.

Mineur P, Menard JF, Le Loet X, et al. VAD or VMBCP in multiple myeloma refractory to or relapsing after cyclophosphamide-prednisone therapy (protocol MY 85). British Journal of Haematology 1998;103(2)::512-7.

Myeloma Trialists' Collaborative Group. Combination chemotherapy versus melphalan plus prednisone as treatment for multiple myeloma: an overview of 6,633 patients from 27 randomized trials.  Journal of Clinical Oncology 1998;16(12):3832-42.

Myers B, Crouch D, Dolan G. Thalidomide treatment in advanced refractory myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 2000;111(3):986.

Myers B, Dolan G. Analysis of durability of response to thalidomide treatment for relapsed myeloma patients. British Journal of Haematology 2002;118(1):347.

Myers  B, Grimley C, Crouch D, et al. Lack of response to thalidomide in plasmacytomas. British Journal of Haematology 2001;115(1):234.

National Cancer Institute.  Multiple Myeloma and Other Plasma Cell Neoplasms (PDQ®): Treatment.

National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Gefitinib for non-small cell lung cancer—appraisal (project). London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence 2003.

Neben K, Moehler T, Benner A, et al. Dose-dependent effect of thalidomide on overall survival in relapsed multiple myeloma. Clinical Cancer Research 2002;8(11):3377-82.

Neben K, Moehler T, Egerer G, et al. High plasma basic fibroblast growth factor concentration is associated with response to thalidomide in progressive multiple myeloma. Clinical Cancer Research 2001;7(9):2675-81.

Neben K, Moehler T, Kraemer A, et al. Response to thalidomide in progressive multiple myeloma is not mediated by inhibition of angiogenic cytokine secretion. British Journal of Haematology 2001;115(3):605-8.

Neben K, Mytilineos J, Moehler TM, et al. Polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene promoter predict for outcome after thalidomide therapy in relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Blood 2002;100(6):2263-5.

Offidani M, Corvatta L, Marconi M, et al. Common and rare side-effects of low-dose thalidomide in multiple myeloma: focus on the dose-minimizing peripheral neuropathy. European Journal of Haematology 2004;72(6):403-9.

Offidani M, Corvatta L, Marconi M, et al. Thalidomide plus oral melphalan compared with thalidomide alone for advanced multiple myeloma. Hematology Journal 2004;5(4):312-7.

Oken MM, Harrington DP, Abramson N, et al. Comparison of melphalan and prednisone with vincristine, carmustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone in the treatment of multiple myeloma: results of Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study E2479.  Cancer 1997;79(8):1561-7.

Olson K, Hall T, Horton J, et al. Thalidomide (N-phthaloylglutamimide) in the treatment of advanced cancer. Clinical Pharmacological Therapy 1965;6(292-297.).

Palumbo A, Bertola A, Falco P, et al. Efficacy of low-dose thalidomide and dexamethasone as first salvage regimen in multiple myeloma. Hematology Journal 2004;5(4):318-24.

Palumbo A, Bertola A, Musto P, et al. A Prospective randomized trial of oral melphalan, prednisone, thalidomide (MPT) vs. oral melphalan, prednisone (MP): An interim analysis. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #207.

Palumbo A, Giaccone L, Bertola A, et al. Low-dose thalidomide plus dexamethasone is an effective salvage therapy for advanced myeloma. Haematologica 2001;86(4):399-403.

Rajkumar SV, Blood E, Vesole DH, et al. Thalidomide plus dexamethasone versus dexamethasone alone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (E1A00): results of a phase III trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #205.

Rajkumar SV, Blood E, Vesole DH, et al. A randomised phase III trial of thalidomide plus dexamethasone versus dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (E1A00): A trial coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22(14S):Abstract #6508.

Rajkumar SV, Dingli D, Nowakowski G, et al. Thalidomide and Dexamethasone in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Long-term results in patients not undergoing upfront autologous stem cell transplantation. ASCO Annual Meetings 2005;Abstract #6632.

Rajkumar SV, Dispenzieri A, Fonseca R, et al. Thalidomide for previously untreated indolent or smoldering multiple myeloma. Leukemia 2001;15(8):1274-6.

Rajkumar SV, Fonseca R, Dispenzieri A, et al. Thalidomide in the treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2000;75(9):897-901.

Rajkumar SV, Gertz MA, Lacy MQ, et al. Thalidomide as initial therapy for early-stage myeloma. Leukemia 2003;17(4):775-9.

Rajkumar SV, Hayman S, Gertz MA, et al. Combination therapy with thalidomide plus dexamethasone for newly diagnosed myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2002;20(21):4319-23.

Ramos J.  Thalidomide: Price increases for cancer treatment. http://www.essentialdrugs.org/edrug/archive/200508/msg00053.php. Accessed Aug 26, 2005.

Reece DE, Chen C, Trudel S, et al. Thalidomide ± Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma Patients > 70 Years of Age. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #4934.

Riccardi A, Mora O, Tinelli C, et al. Long-term survival of stage I multiple myeloma given chemotherapy just after diagnosis or at progression of the disease: a multicentre randomized study. Cooperative Group of Study and Treatment of Multiple Myeloma.  British Journal of Cancer 2000;82(7):1254-60.

Richardson P, Anderson KC. Immunomodulatory analogs of thalidomide: an emerging new therapy in myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22(16):3212-4.

Richardson P, Schlossman R, Jagannath S, et al. Thalidomide for patients with relapsed multiple myeloma after high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation: results of an open-label multicenter phase 2 study of efficacy, toxicity, and biological activity. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2004;79(7):875-82.

Samson D, Gaminara E, Newland A, et al. Infusion of vincristine and doxorubicin with oral dexamethasone as first-line therapy for multiple myeloma. Lancet 1989;2(8668):882-5.

Schey SA, Cavenagh J, Johnson R, et al. An UK myeloma forum phase II study of thalidomide; long term follow-up and recommendations for treatment. Leukemia Research 2003;27(10):909-14.

Schutt P, Ebeling P, Buttkereit U, et al. Thalidomide in combination with vincristine, epirubicin and dexamethasone (VED) for previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma. European Journal of Haematology 2005;74(1):40-6.

Segeren CM, Sonneveld P, van der Holt B, et al. Vincristine, doxorubicin and dexamethasone (VAD) administered as rapid intravenous infusion for first-line treatment in untreated multiple myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 1999;105(1):127-30.

Sengar M, Kumar L, Ganessan K, et al. Role of post transplant maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma: Results from a developing country. ASCO Annual Meetings 2005;Abstract #6731.

Shaughnessy J, Tian E, Sawyer J, et al. Prognostic impact of cytogenetic and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization-defined chromosome 13 deletion in multiple myeloma: early results of total therapy II. British Journal of Haematology 2003;120(1):44-52.

Singh V, Klinge A, Luminari S, et al. Understanding thalidomide-associated deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary emboli (DVT/PE): Comparison of quality and information included in adverse event reports from clinical trials, clinical practice, STEPS, and the medical literature. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22(14S):Abstract #3142.

Singhal S, Mehta J, Desikan R, et al. Antitumor activity of thalidomide in refractory multiple myeloma. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;341(21):1565-71.

Spencer A, Roberts A, Neeman T, et al. Renal safety evaluation of zoledronic acid and thalidomide when used as post-stem cell transplant maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2004;22(14S):Abstract #6655.

Stewart AK, Chen C, Howson-Jan K, et al. Results of a multi-center randomized phase II trial of thalidomide and prednisone maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma following autologous stem cell transplant. Blood 2004;104: Abstract #335.

Suvannasankha A, Fausel C, Juliar BE, et al. Final report of a phase II study of oral cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and prednisone (CTP) for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: a Hoosier Oncology Group Trial: HEM01-21. ASCO Annual Meetings 2005;Abstract #6591.

Teoh G, Hwang W, Koh LP, et al. Low dose dexamethasone and thalidomide with higher frequency zoledronic acid (DTZ) for multiple myeloma. Blood 2004;104(1):Abstract #4915.

Thompson MA, Witzig TE, Kumar S, et al. Plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 predict progression-free survival following thalidomide therapy in patients with previously untreated multiple myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 2003;123(2):305-8.

Tosi P, Ronconi S, Zamagni E, et al. Salvage therapy with thalidomide in multiple myeloma patients relapsing after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Haematologica 2001;86(4):409-13.

Tosi P, Zamagni E, Cellini C, et al. Thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in newly diagnosed and pre-treated multiple myeloma patients. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #4898.

Tosi P, Zamagni E, Cellini C, et al. Thalidomide alone or in combination with dexamethasone in patients with advanced, relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and renal failure. European Journal of Haematology 2004;73(2):98-103.

Tosi P, Zamagni E, Cellini C, et al. Neurological toxicity of long-term (>1 yr) thalidomide therapy in patients with multiple myeloma. European Journal of Haematology 2005;74(3):212-6.

Tosi P, Zamagni E, Cellini C, et al. Salvage therapy with thalidomide in patients with advanced relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Haematologica 2002;87(4):408-14.

Waage A, Gimsing P, Juliusson G, et al. Early response predicts thalidomide efficiency in patients with advanced multiple myeloma. British Journal of Haematology 2004;125(2):149-55.

Weber D, Rankin K, Gavino M, et al. Thalidomide alone or with dexamethasone for previously untreated multiple myeloma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2003;21(1):16-9.

Williams CD, Byrne JL, Sidra G, et al. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone achieves a high response rate in patients with newly diagnosed, VAD-refractory and relapsed myeloma. Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #1499.

Wilson JS, Connock M, Song FJ, et al. Imatinib mesylate for the treatment of patients with unresectable and/or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST). Health Technology Assessment 2003.

Yakoub-Agha I, Attal M, Dumontet C, et al. Thalidomide in patients with advanced multiple myeloma: a study of 83 patients--report of the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM). Hematology Journal 2002;3(4):185-92.

Yakoub-Agha I, Moreau P, Leyvraz S, et al. Thalidomide in patients with advanced multiple myeloma. Hematology Journal 2000;1(3):186-9.

Zangari M, Anaissie E, Barlogie B, et al. Increased risk of deep-vein thrombosis in patients with multiple myeloma receiving thalidomide and chemotherapy. Blood 2001;98(5):1614-5.

Zangari M, Barlogie B, Anaissie E, et al. Deep vein thrombosis in patients with multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide and chemotherapy: effects of prophylactic and therapeutic anticoagulation. British Journal of Haematology 2004;126(5):715-21.

Zangari M, Barlogie B, Hollmig K, et al. Marked Activity of Velcade Plus Thalidomide (V+T) in Advanced and Refractory Multiple Myeloma (MM). Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #1480.

Zangari M, Barlogie B, Lee C-K, et al. Protective Effect of VELCADE® on Thalidomide-Associated Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT). Blood 2004;104(11):Abstract #4914.

Zangari M, Saghafifar F, Anaissie E, et al. Activated protein C resistance in the absence of factor V Leiden mutation is a common finding in multiple myeloma and is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic complications. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis 2002;13(3):187-92.

Zangari M, Siegel E, Barlogie B, et al. Thrombogenic activity of doxorubicin in myeloma patients receiving thalidomide: implications for therapy. Blood 2002;100(4):1168-71.

Zervas K, Dimopoulos MA, Hatzicharissi E, et al. Primary treatment of multiple myeloma with thalidomide, vincristine, liposomal doxorubicin and dexamethasone (T-VAD doxil): a phase II multicenter study. Annals of Oncology 2004;15(1):134-8.

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