Reducing Health Disparities Through Research & Translation Programs (Text Version)
On September 20, 2011, Francis Chesley, Jr., M.D. made this presentation at the 2011 Annual Conference. Select to access the PowerPoint® presentation (1.4 MB).
Reducing Health Disparities Through Research & Translation Programs
Francis D. Chesley, Jr., M.D.
Director, Office of Extramural Research, Education, & Priority Populations
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
AHRQ Annual Meeting
September 20, 2011
- Health Information Technology (IT).
- Patient Safety Organizations.
- New Patient Safety Grants.
Effective Health Care Program
- Comparative Effectiveness Reviews.
- Comparative Effectiveness Research.
- Clear Findings for Multiple Audiences.
Other Research & Dissemination Activities
- Quality & Cost-Effectiveness, e.g., Prevention and Pharmaceutical Outcomes.
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus/Healthcare-associated Infections (MRSA/HAIs).
Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys
- Visit-Level Information on Medical Expenditures.
- Annual Quality & Disparities Reports.
Ambulatory Patient Safety
- Safety & Quality Measures, Drug Management and Patient-Centered Care.
- Patient Safety Improvement Corps.
Health & Health Care Disparities
- Disparities: a meaningful difference between population groups in access or quality of care.
- Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care are well documents & and worsening in some cases:
- Life expectancy.
- Infant mortality.
- Chronic diseases.
- The U.S. population continues to become more diverse (54% of US population by 2050).
- We know enough to act now.
New: 2010 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports
Reports Indicate that Quality Is Improving, but at a Slow Pace
- Overall, improvement in the quality of care remains suboptimal and access to care is not improving.
- Few disparities in quality are getting smaller and almost no disparities in access are getting smaller.
- Quality of care varies not only across types of care but also across parts of the country.
2010 National Healthcare Disparities Report
Health care quality and access are suboptimal, especially for minority and low-income groups.
- Hispanics received worse care than non-Hispanic Whites for about 60% of core measures.
- Blacks, American Indians and Alaska Natives received worse care than Whites for about 40% of core measures.
- Asians received worse care than Whites for about 20% of core measures.
- Poor people received worse care than high-income people for about 80% of core measures.
AHRQ Priority Populations Inclusion Policy
- Inner city and rural areas (including frontier areas).
- Low income groups.
- Racial and ethnic minority groups.
- Women and children.
- The elderly.
- Individuals with special health care needs, including individuals with disabilities and those who need chronic care or end-of-life health care.
Strategies for Action within Agency Programs
- Leverage Legislation.
- Budget Development & Execution.
- Grant and Contract Policies.
- Clear Articulation of Disparities Research, Dissemination & Implementation Priorities.
- Tracking and Evaluation.
Articulating Priority & Innovation
- Address disparities reduction in conceptual, intervention and analytic models.
- Balanced projects within an initiative with a require focus on improving outcomes for specific populations:
- Research Centers of Excellence in Clinical Preventive Services (RFA-HS-11-005).
- Innovations in peer review:
- Require disparities focus (where appropriate).
- Selection of reviewers & specific guidance.
- Extra points for addressing disparities or outcomes for priority populations.
Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA)
- Includes a significant focus on reducing health disparities and improving the health of diverse populations.
- Requires data collection and reporting by race, ethnicity, primary language & disability status.
- Will provide an evidence base for action by identifying gaps and trends.
- Requires development of a National Quality Strategy:
- Reducing health disparities across populations is a criterion for priority setting
ACA and Disparities Research
- New Office of Minority Health at AHRQ.
- Patient-centered Outcomes Research Institute:
- Comparative effectiveness research.
- Research funding (peer review & public comment required).
- Requires a focus on racial and ethnic minorities, gender, age, and health disparities.
- AHRQ funding: $8M in FY11, $24M in FY12.
ACA Provisions and AHRQ
- New Office of Minority Health at AHRQ:
- AHRQ Action Plan linked to HHS Action Plan to Reduce Disparities.
- Sets specific objectives and expectations and requires accountability.
- Specific Research Priorities:
- Research Centers for Excellence in Clinical Preventive Services (RFA-HS-11-005) — Health Equity Research Center of Excellence.
- Research on Health Issues for Minority Women (NOT-HS-11-013).
To improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care for all Americans.
As a result of AHRQ's efforts, American health care will provide services of the highest quality, with the best possible outcomes, at the lowest cost.