AHRQ issues recommendations for safeguarding children during public health emergencies
Research Activities, April 2009
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) has released two new tools designed to protect and care for children who are in a hospital or a school during a public health emergency.
The first tool consists of guidelines to assist pediatric hospitals in converting from standard operating capacity to surge capacity and help community hospital emergency departments provide care for large numbers of critically ill children. Emergency response planners have to take into account differences between children and adults such as children's faster breathing rates, immature immune systems, limited self-preservation skills, greater risk of illness from exposure to extreme heat or cold, and greater risk of post-traumatic stress disorder. The tool addresses needs such as communications, staff responsibilities, triaging, stress management, and security concerns when handling large numbers of children with either communicable respiratory diseases or communicable foodborne or waterborne illnesses.
The second tool is a national model for school-based emergency response planning. It provides guidance on the recommended steps for both creating and implementing a school-based emergency response plan. Steps outlined include performing needs assessments, conducting site surveys, developing training modules for school staff, and informing parents of the plan, as well as steps relating to building security and safety, preparation for large-scale emergencies, sheltering-in-place and lockdown, evacuation, relocation, and communications. Included with the guidance is a model school-based emergency response plan developed by the Brookline, Massachusetts, school district in cooperation with the Center for Biopreparedness, the division of Harvard Medical School that prepared both sets of guidelines under contract to AHRQ.
Pediatric Hospital Surge Capacity in Public Health Emergencies (http://www.ahrq.gov/prep/pedhospital/) and School-Based Emergency Preparedness: A National Analysis and Recommended Protocol (http://www.ahrq.gov/prep/schoolprep/) are available on AHRQ's Web site. Free printed copies are available from the AHRQ Publications Clearinghouse.
Editor's note: AHRQ has other tools that can be used for pediatric emergency preparedness planning. One such tool is Decontamination of Children: Preparedness and Response for Hospital Emergency Departments, a 27-minute video that illustrates for emergency responders and hospital emergency department staff how to safely decontaminate children who have been exposed to hazardous chemicals, including those from a bioterrorist attack. In addition, Pediatric Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness: A Resource for Pediatricians, is a comprehensive report that is a practical resource that pediatricians can consult to plan for and respond to natural disasters and bioterrorist events. Its summary highlights significant parts of the report for quick reference. AHRQ has supported more than 60 emergency preparedness-related studies, workshops, and conferences to help hospitals and health care systems prepare for public health emergencies. Many of these projects were made possible through collaboration with HHS' Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, and other Federal agencies. More information about these projects can be found online at http://www.ahrq.gov/prep/.