||Mission Areas Activated
||Evacuation and Shelter
||Nuclear Detonation—10 Kiloton Improvised Nuclear Device
||This scenario postulates a 10-kiloton improvised nuclear device (IND) detonation in a large metropolitan area.
||Hundreds of thousands
||Total destruction within radius of 0.5 to 3 miles
||100,000 seek shelter in safe areas (decontamination required for all before entering shelters); 250,000 told to shelter-in-place as plume moves across region; 1 million+ self-evacuate from major cities.
||Evacuation and/or sheltering of downwind populations required. Actions needed: monitor/decontaminate evacuees, protect schools and day care facilities, provide shelter/reception facilities.
||Decontamination and both short-term and long-term treatment; hospitals overwhelmed; level of care may be lower than normally expected
||Biological Attack—Aerosol Anthrax (a)
||Dispersal of the anthrax takes place in a densely populated urban city with a significant commuter workforce. The exposed population will disperse widely before the incident is detected. (a)
||13,000 fatalities and injuries (a)
||Minimal, other than contamination (a)
||25,000 seek shelter (decontamination required); 10,000 instructed to shelter-in-place; 100,000 self evacuate out of affected areas (a)
||Evacuation and treatment will be required; provide warnings to the population-at-large and the population-at-risk; need to notify people to shelter-in-place and/or evacuate (a)
||Care to the ill must be provided and should include disbursing PEP/vaccinations and establishing treatment/distribution centers (a)
||Biological Disease Outbreak—Pandemic Influenza (a)
||Pandemic Influenza strikes locations across the country. All entities must use pre-existing resources. Available medical supplies will be distributed as available. Health care systems will not be able to activate MOUs with neighboring locales. (a)
||15% attack rate: 87,000 fatalities; 300,000 hospitalizations (a)
||No evacuation required; shelter-in-place or quarantine instructions given to certain highly affected areas (a)
||Evacuations not necessary; quarantine has not typically been used with much success to stop the spread of influenza (a)
||Antiviral drugs for treatment of most ill; ventilators may be necessary for many; at-home care and OTC medications for most (a)
||Biological Attack—Plague (a)
||Pneumonic plague is released into three main areas of a major metropolitan city. Included is rapid dissemination to distant locations through foreign and domestic travel. (a)
||6,000 illnesses, unknown fatalities (a)
||No evacuation needed; shelter-in-place or quarantine to certain highly affected areas; possible large-scale self-evacuation from affected communities (a)
||Transport and treatment of some victims will be required; self-quarantine through shelter-in-place may be instituted (a)
||Treatment or prophylaxis with ventilators and antibiotics, as well as information measures to prevent spread of disease; advanced treatment for those with pneumonia (a)
||Chemical Attack—Blister Agent
||A light aircraft sprays chemical agent YELLOW into a packed college football stadium. The agent directly contaminates the stadium and the immediate surrounding area, and generates a downwind vapor hazard.
||150 fatalities, 70,000 hospitalizations
||More than 100,000 evacuated; 15.000 seek shelter in immediate area (decontamination required)
||Evacuation and/or sheltering of downwind populations in a 360 degree arc around release site required until contained
||Decontamination for tens of thousands of people and short-term and long-term medical treatment
||Chemical Attack—Toxic Industrial Chemicals
||Grenades and IEDs cause significant explosions at at fixed facility petroleum refineries. Simultaneously multiple cargo containers at a nearby port explode aboard or near several cargo ships with resulting fires.
||350 fatalities; 1,000 hospitalizations
||50% of structures in area of explosion
||10,000 evacuated; 1,000 seek shelter in safe areas; 25,000 instructed to temporarily shelter-in-place as plume moves across region; 100,000 self-evacuate out of region
||Evacuation/sheltering/protection of downwind populations will be required
||Injuries to be treated will include trauma, burns, smoke inhalation, severe respiratory distress, seizures, and/or comas; short- and long-term treatment will be required, as well as decontamination
||Chemical Attack—Nerve Agent
||Sarin vapor is released into the ventilation systems of three large commercial office buildings in a metropolitan area. The agent kills 95% of the people in the buildings, and kills or sickens many of the first responders. In addition, some of the agent exits through rooftop ventilation stacks, creating a downwind hazard.
||5,700 fatalities (95% of building occupants); 300 injuries
||Minimal, other than contamination
||Temporary shelter-in-place instructions are given for 50,000 people in adjacent buildings
||Evacuation/sheltering/protection of downwind populations will be required; large numbers of worried well swamping the medical system
||Decontamination and monitoring of individuals as they are allowed to leave their buildings; hundreds will require hospital treatment
||Chemical Attack—Chlorine Tank Explosion
||Using a low-order explosive a storage tank man-way is ruptured, releasing a large quantity of chlorine gas downwind of the site. Secondary devices are set to impact first responders.
||17,500 fatalities; 10,000 severe injuries; 100,000 hospitalizations
||Immediate explosion area and metal corrosion in areas of heavy exposure
||100,000 instructed to temporarily shelter-in-place as plume moves across region; 50,000 evacuated to shelters in safe areas; 500,000 self-evacuate out of region
||Evacuation/sheltering/protections of downwind populations will be required
||Injuries to be treated will include respiratory difficulty or severe distress and trauma; short- and long-term treatment may be required
||Natural Disaster—Major Earthquake
||A 7.2-magnitude earthquake, with a subsequent 8.0 earthquake following, occurs along a fault zone in a major metropolitan area of a city, greatly impacting a six-county region with a population of approximately 10 million people.
||1,400 fatalities; 18,000 hospitalizations
||150,000 buildings destroyed; 1 million buildings damaged
||300,000 homes destroyed; 250,000 seek shelter in safe areas; 250,000 self evacuate the area
||Structural engineers inspect critical buildings, bridges, freeways, waste facilities, etc; inspection teams deployed to inspect hundreds of homes for safe habitability
||Activation of task forces for delivery of mass care and health and medical services; temporary housing strategies considered
||Natural Disaster—Major Hurricane
||A Category 5 hurricane hits a Major Metropolitan Area (MMA). Sustained winds are at 160 mph with a storm surge greater than 20 feet above normal. Massive evacuations are required. Certain low-lying escape routes are inundated by water anywhere from 5 hours before the eye of the hurricane reaches land.
||1,000 fatalities; 5,000 hospitalizations
||Buildings destroyed, large amounts of debris
||1 million evacuated; 150,000 seek shelter in safe areas; 200,000 homes destroyed
||State and local officials have time to execute evacuation plans; roads leading from the area are overwhelmed and massive traffic jams hinder the evacuation efforts; need to provide for temporary shelter and interim housing; permanent housing support will also be required
||Medical assistance; shelter and temporary housing assistance; emergency food, water and ice provision; sanitary facility provision
||Radiological Attack—Radiological Dispersal Devices
||Dirty bombs containing cesium chloride (CsCl) are detonated in three separate, but regionally close, moderate-to-large cities.
||180 fatalities, 270 hospitalizations, 20,000 needing decontamination
||Structures affected by blast, up to 0.5 square mile of contamination
||Evacuation of 100,000 downwind will be required after plume has passed, a localized area will need to be relocated until area is cleaned up.
||Sheltering and/or evacuation of downwind populations will be required and must occur quickly; hospitals inundated by 50,000 "worried well"
||Decontamination of injured persons prior to hospital admission; superficial decontamination needed for most; short- and long-term followup for injured
||Explosives Attack—Bombing Using Improvised Explosive Devices
||Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) to detonate bombs at a sports arena, parking lot, and underground transportation. More IEDs detonated in the lobby of the nearest hospital emergency room (ER).
||100 fatalities; 450 hospitalizations
||Structures affected by blast and fire
||Evacuation of immediate area around each explosion results in approximately 5,000 people seeking shelter in safe areas.
||Evacuation is required as well as additional threat assessment; area must be cordoned
||Injuries range from "walking wounded" to multiple systems trauma, burns, some fatalities; potential loss facilities at target hospital will require other facilities to receive all patients from blast sites
||Biological Attack—Food Contamination (a)
||Ground beef is tainted in California with an agent, following retail distribution, the tainted ground beef is in three cities. (a)
||500 fatalities; 650 hospitalizations; 1,800 illnesses (a)
||Not Applicable (a)
||Victim care will require diagnosis and treatment of affected population and distribution of prophylaxis for potentially exposed populations (a)
||Biological Attack—Foreign Animal Disease (Foot & Mouth)
||Farm animals at specific locations are infected with hoof and mouth disease.
||Huge loss of livestock
||It will be necessary to euthanize and dispose of infected and exposed animals; impact on farmers and farm communities should be considered
||In a cyber attack, credit-card processing facilities are hacked and numbers released to Internet, causing mass credit card cancellation, nationwide failure of ATMs; also payroll and pension malfunctions.