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Hospital Evacuation Decision Guide

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and may now be outdated. Archive material is no longer maintained, and some links may not work. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing this information should contact us at: https://info.ahrq.gov. Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your contact information.

Please go to www.ahrq.gov for current information.

References

1. Available at: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. Learn About the Types of Disasters. http://www.fema.gov/hazard/types.shtm. Accessed May 2009.

2. Maxwell C. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning. Am J Public Health 1982;72(3):275-9.

3. Schultz CH, Koenig KL, Lewis RJ. Implications of hospital evacuation after the Northridge, California, earthquake. New Engl J Med 2003;348(14):1349-55.

4. Cocanour CS, Allen SJ, Mazabob J, et al. Lessons learned from the evacuation of an urban teaching hospital. Arch Surg 2002;137(10):1141-5.

5. Augustine J, Schoettmer JT. Evacuation of a rural community hospital: lessons learned from an unplanned event. Disaster Manag Response 2005; 3(3):68-72.

6. Personal interview in January 2009 with Facilities Management staff, Kindred Healthcare, New Orleans (Louisiana).

7. Personal interview in January 2009 with Operations Division staff, Children's Hospital of New Orleans (Louisiana).

8. Personal interview in January 2009 with Area Emergency Management staff, Veterans Administration Medical Center, New Orleans (Louisiana).

9. Personal interview in January 2009 with Emergency Medicine staff, Charity Hospital, New Orleans (Louisiana).

10. Available at: MSNBC and Associated Press. Two Troubled New Orleans Hospitals Evacuated. September 3, 2005. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9159926. Accessed December 2009.

11. Sexton KH, Alperin LM, Stobo JD. Lessons from Hurricane Rita: the University of Texas Medical Branch Hospital's evacuation. Acad Med 2007;82(8):792-6.

12. Andress K, Downey E, Schultz C. Benchmarking Hospitals for Evacuation due to Hurricane Rita. 2008 Integrated Medical, Public Health, Preparedness and Response Training Summit, March 18, 2008.

13. Joint Commission Resources. Planning for an Evacuation: Hospital Shares Lessons from California Wildfires. Environment of Care News 2008;11(4):1-11.

14. Personal interview in February 2009 with Emergency Medicine staff, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York.

15. Available at: MeritCare. Evacuated Patients Returning to MeritCare. April 2009. http://www.meritcare.com/About/MeritCareFeatures/View_Article.aspx?id=52. Accessed December 2009.

16. Personal interview in May 2009 with Hospital Administration staff, Innovis Health, Fargo (North Dakota).

17. Available at: Department of Homeland Security: National Infrastructure Protection Plan, 2009. http://www.dhs.gov/xprevprot/programs/editorial_0827.shtm#1. Accessed December 2009.

18. Personal interview in January 2009 with Emergency Medicine staff, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Massachusetts).

19. Personal interview in March 2009 with Facilities Engineering staff, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Massachusetts).

20. Personal interview in January 2009 with Facility Engineering staff, Veterans Administration Medical Center, New Orleans (Louisiana).

21. Gutterman L. Decades of Research Destroyed by Katrina. The Chronicle of Higher Education (online, by subscription). September 30, 2005.

22. Personal interview in May 2009 with Respiratory Therapy staff, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Massachusetts).

23. Davis C. Hospital Evacuated After Boiler Explosion. The Boston Globe. December 15, 2005.

24. Available at: CBS Broadcasting and Associated Press. Boiler Explosion Prompts NJ Hospital Evacuation. July 15, 2008. http://wcbstv.com/topstories/St.Mary.2.236267.html. Accessed December 2009.

25. Personal interview in May 2009 with Pharmacy staff, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (Massachusetts).

26. Available at: MSNBC and Associated Press. Katrina Outages Reveal Phone System Quirks. August 31, 2005. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9120503/ns/technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets/. Accessed December 2009.

27. Available at: The Jeff Pulver Blog. VoIP: Proving to be Effective in Katrina Emergency. September 9, 2005. http://pulverblog.pulver.com/archives/002817.html. Accessed December 2009.

28. Available at: Government Technology. Boyd D. Emergency Responders Need Equipment Compatibility, DHS Official Says. March 9, 2009. http://www.govtech.com/gt/625804. Accessed December 2009.

29. Available at: The Christian Science Monitor. Carlson B. Ham Radio Operators Tune in Hurricane Help. September 15, 2005. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0915/p12s02-stss.html. Accessed December 2009.

30. Personal interview in March 2009 with Security staff, Massachusetts General and Brigham and Women's Hospitals, Boston (Massachusetts).

31. Kelen GD, Kraus CK, McCarthy ML, et al. Inpatient disposition classification for the creation of hospital surge capacity: a multiphase study. Lancet 2006;368(9551):1984-90.

32. Personal interview in April 2009 with Human Resources staff, Children's Hospital of New Orleans (Louisiana).

33. McCaughrin WC, Mattammal M. Perfect storm: organizational management of patient care under natural disaster conditions; J Healthc Manag 2003;48(5):295-308.

34. Personal interview in May 2009 with former nurse, Memorial Hermann Hospital, Galveston (Texas).

35. Personal interview in January 2009 with expert on the Northridge Earthquake hospital evacuations.

36. Personal interview in January 2009 with Facility Manager, Veterans Administration Medical Center of New Orleans (Louisiana).

37. Personal interview in January 2009 with Emergency Medicine staff, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (Massachusetts).

38. Available at: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Rich T, Callahan M. Mass Evacuation Transportation Model: Description. AHRQ Publication No. 080102-1-EF, October 2008. http://www.ahrq.gov/prep/massevac/description/. Accessed December 2009.

39. Available at: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043, April 2005. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altstand/. Accessed December 2009.

40. Available at: Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Hansen JO. Through Hell and High Water: Two Hospitals, One Hurricane, and an Epic Struggle to Rescue the Abandoned. May 5, 2006. http://www.ajc.com/blogs/content/sharedblogs/ajc/twohospitals/entries/2006/05/18/chapter_13_of_22.html. Accessed December 2009.

41. Available at: The Urban Institute. Gray BH, Hebert K. After Katrina. Hospitals in Hurricane Katrina: Challenges Facing Custodial Institutions in a Disaster. July 2006. http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411348_katrinahospitals.pdf. Exit Disclaimer [PDF Help] Accessed December 2009.

42. Available at: U.S. Department of Transportation. FEMA Awards EMSC/AMR Disaster Response Contract. Business Wire. June 8, 2007. http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/Emergency/artikel-8759400.htm. Accessed December 2009.

43. Available at: Emergency Management Assistance Compact, National Emergency Management Association: Preparedness Guide and Deployment Tips. http://www.emacweb.org/?1674. Exit Disclaimer Accessed December 2009.

44. Homeland Defense and Americas' Security Affairs, Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense, U.S. Department of Defense.

45. Available at: Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC. Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC Completes Historic Move to Lawrenceville With Successful Patient Relocation. May 2, 2009. http://www.chp.edu/CHP/050209. Exit Disclaimer Accessed December 2009.

46. Perrin K. A first for this century: closing and reopening of a children's hospital during a disaster. Pediatrics 2006;117(5 Pt 3):S381-5.

47. Available at: Huffington Post. Fink S, ProPublica. Disaster Preparedness Pays off in North Dakota. March 31, 2009. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/propublica/disasterpreparedness-pay_b_181419.html. Accessed December 2009.

48. Available at: MedLaw.com. Frew SA. Cedar Rapids Hospital Evacuated. June 13, 2008. http://www.medlaw.com/healthlaw/Emergency_Preparedness/15_4/cedar-rapids-hospitalevacuated.shtml. Accessed December 2009.

49. Available at: ModerHealthcare.com. Associated Press: Flooding Forces Evacuation of Cedar Rapids Hospital. June 13, 2008. http://www.modernhealthcare.com/article/20080613/REG/780280436. Accessed December 2009.

50. Barnett J, Dennis-Rouse M, Martinez V. Wildfire disaster leads to facilities evacuation. Orthop Nurs 2009;28(1):17-20.

51. The New York Centers for Terrorism Preparedness and Planning. NYCTP Hospital Evacuation Protocol: Draft March 2006. Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program, NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. New York, U.S.

52. Available at: American Society for Clinical Pathology. Davis J. Midwest Region Winner: Columbus Regional Hospital, Indiana. http://www.ascp.org/MainMenu/laboratoryprofessionals/LabWeek/Columbus.aspx. Exit Disclaimer Accessed December 2009.

53. Available at: BizVoiceMagazine.com. Patrick R. Watershed Event: Resilience Reigns at Columbus Regional Hospital. May/June 2009. http://www.bizvoicemagazine.com/archives/09mayjun/ColumbusRegionalHospital.pdf. Accessed December 2009.

54. Available at: Hospitals & Health Networks. Putre L. Hospital Staff Proves 'Nothing is Impossible.' June 2009. http://www.hhnmag.com/hhnmag_app/jsp/articledisplay.jsp?dcrpath=HHNMAG/Article/data/01JAN2009/0901HHN_InBox_ExtraMile&domain=HHNMAG. Accessed December 2009.

55. Nates JL. Combined external and internal hospital disaster: impact and response in a Houston trauma center intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 2004;32(3):686-90.

56. Distefano SM, Graf JM, Lowry AW, Sitler GC. Getting kids from the Big Easy hospitals to our place (not easy): preparing, improvising, and caring for children during mass transport after a disaster. Pediatrics 2006;117(5):S421-7.

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