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National Commission on Children and Disasters: 2010 Report to the President and Congress

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

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References (continued)

200. Diana Fendya, Sally Snow, and Tasmeen Singh Weik, "Using System Change as a Method of Performance / Quality Improvement for Emergency and Trauma Care of Severely Injured Children: Pediatric System Performance Improvement," 32.

201. Ibid., 29.

202. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Fiscal Year 2010 Homeland Security Grant Program: Guidance and Application Kit, (Washington, DC: DHS, 2009), 10, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/government/grant/2010/fy10_hsgp_kit.pdf [PDF Help].

203. Ibid., 10-11.

204. State grantees do not need to provide direct funding to EMS providers if they can "demonstrate that related target capabilities have been met or identify more significant priorities." Ibid., 11. 205. Emergency Medical Services for Children National Resource Center, Children's National Medical Center, Gap Analysis of EMS Related Research: Report to the Federal Interagency Committee on EMS.

206. Ibid., 15-16.

207. Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System, Board on Health Care Services, Emergency Care for Children: Growing Pains, 314.

208. Ibid., 314.

209. For example, the Department of Defense, DHS, and the Coast Guard.

210. NDMS was originally designed to support the medical care and transport of military and civilian casualties from a war abroad, but has never been used for this purpose; its mission today includes post-disaster medical support for civilians. Crystal Franco, Eric Toner, Richard Waldhorn, Thomas Inglesby, and Tara O'Toole, "The National Disaster Medical System: Past, Present, and Suggestions for the Future," Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 4, no. 5(2007):319, http://www.upmcbiosecurity.org/website/resources/publications/2007_orig-articles/2007_article_pdfs/2007-12-04-natldisastermedsystempastpresfut.pdf.

211. Ibid., 322.

212. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Progress Report on Children and Disasters: U.S. Agencies Take Modest Steps to Achieve Commission Goals," (Washington, DC: NCCD, May 11, 2010), 7, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100511_NCCD_Progress_Report_FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

213. Crystal Franco, Eric Toner, Richard Waldhorn, Thomas Inglesby, and Tara O'Toole, "The National Disaster Medical System: Past, Present, and Suggestions for the Future," 322-323.

214. During Hurricane Katrina, the Coast Guard assisted with the evacuation of 9,462. patients and medical personnel from hospitals and nursing homes. Federal Emergency Management Agency, "The First Year After Hurricane Katrina: What the Federal Government Did," http://www.dhs.gov/xfoia/archives/gc_1157649340100.shtm.

215. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared, S. Rpt. 109-322, (Washington, DC: GPO, 2006), 414, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/katrinanation.html.

216. U.S. Department of Transportation, "FEMA Awards EMSC/AMR Disaster Response Contract," http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/Emergency/artikel-8759400.htm.

217. Committee on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System, Board on Health Care Services, Future of Emergency Care: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, ed. Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2007), 58, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11629. Exit Disclaimer

218. ESF #8, Public Health and Medical Services, coordinates all Federal assistance in support of State, local, tribal, and regional response to public health and medical disasters, incidents requiring a coordinated Federal public health or medical response, and developing public health or medical emergencies. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, "National Response Framework, Emergency Support Function #8—Public Health and Medical Services Annex," http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-esf-08.pdf [PDF Help].

219. For example, more than 4,000 patients were evacuated through the New Orleans airport and some patients were placed on Air Force aircraft; however, more than half were placed on National Guard and private aircraft and thus were not logged and tracked as NDMS patients. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared, 414.

220. Ian Urbina, "Paperwork Hinders Airlifts of Ill Haitian Children," New York Times, February 8, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/09/world/americas/09airlift.html.

221. Enrique Ginzburg, William O'Neill, Pascal Goldschmidt-Clermont, Eduardo de Marchena, Daniel Pust, and Barth Green, "Rapid Medical Relief—Project Medishare and the Haitian Earthquake," The New England Journal of Medicine 362, no. 10 (2010): 1-3, http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1002026.

222. National Biodefense Science Board, Strategic Improvements To The National Disaster Medical System (NDMS): Report From The Disaster Medicine Working Group NDMS Assessment Panel, (Washington, DC: HHS, September 2008), 5.

223. Disaster case management has been defined as "the process of organizing and providing a timely, coordinated approach to assess disaster-related needs including health care, mental health, and human services needs that were caused or exacerbated by the event and may adversely impact an individual's recovery if not addressed. The purpose of disaster case management is to rapidly return individuals and families who have survived a disaster to a state of self-sufficiency." Roberta Lavin and Sylvia Menifee, Disaster Case Management: Implementation Guide, (Washington, DC: Administration for Children and Families, 2009), 6-7, http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ohsepr/dcm/docs/Draft_DCM_ImplementationGuide.pdf [PDF Help].

224. Following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, donations from foreign countries enabled FEMA to fund the Katrina Aid Today consortium. The Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act, passed in October 2006, amended the Stafford Act to grant the President the authority to provide financial assistance for case management services to survivors of major disasters. Public Law (P.L.) 109-295, title VI, §689f, codified at 42. U.S.C. §5189d (2006); U.S. Government Accountability Office, Disaster Assistance: Improvements in Providing Federal Disaster Case Management Services Could Help Agencies Better Assist Victims, GAO-10-278T, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2009), 1, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d10278t.pdf [PDF Help].

225. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Disaster Assistance: Greater Coordination and an Evaluation of Programs' Outcomes Could Improve Disaster Case Management, GAO-09-561, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2009), 34, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09561.pdf [PDF Help].

226. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 31-32, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf.

227. FEMA News Release HQ-09-145, "FEMA and Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families Improve Disaster Case Management through Interagency Agreement," http://www.fema.gov/news/newsrelease.fema?id=50037.

228. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Disaster Assistance: Improvements in Providing Federal Disaster Case Management Services Could Help Agencies Better Assist Victims, 7-9.

229. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Disaster Assistance: Greater Coordination and an Evaluation of Programs' Outcomes Could Improve Disaster Case Management, 13-14.

230. Council on Accreditation, "Case Management," http://www.coacanadastandards.org/standards.php?navView=private&section_id=21. Exit Disclaimer

231. In the ACF model, paraprofessionals or volunteers are designated as case manager assistants or client navigators. Roberta Lavin and Sylvia Menifee, Disaster Case Management: Implementation Guide, 68.

232. This includes children in child care centers, family child care homes, and the homes of friends and relatives. National Association of Child Care Resource & Referral Agencies, Child Care in America: 2009 Fact Sheets, (Arlington, VA: NACCRRA, April 2009), 3, http://www.naccrra.org/docs/policy/state-fact-sheet-2009.pdf. [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

233. The word "States" includes the District of Columbia, which is one of the 14. "States" meeting the named criteria.

234. Save the Children, A National Report Card on Protecting Children During Disasters, (Westport, CT: Save the Children, 2010), 4, http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/2010-Disaster-Report.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

235. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 35, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf [PDF Help].

236. Save the Children and the National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies have developed disaster preparedness standards for child care, including guidance for State regulatory practices and child care providers, which include these recommended provisions. National Association of Child Care Resource & Referral Agencies, Keeping Children Safe: A Policy Agenda for Child Care in Emergencies, (Arlington, VA: NACCRRA, 2008), http://www.naccrra.org/disaster/docs/Disaster_Report.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

237. The lack of coordination and communication with emergency management was evident in Iowa, where only child care providers in communities near nuclear power plants coordinated planning with local emergency managers, and that was only because it is required for nuclear preparedness planning. Outside of those areas, there was less communication between child care providers and emergency management officials. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Summary Report: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," (Washington, DC: NCCD, 2010), 5-6, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100106_IowaFieldVisit_Summary.pdf [PDF Help].

238. CCDBG provides formula grants to States, territories, and tribes to help low-income families obtain child care services.

239. For instance, in some States, home-based providers and providers serving a small number of children may be exempt from the State's licensing or regulatory scheme.

240. QRIS aim to make "child-care quality transparent to child-care providers, parents, and policymakers." RAND Corporation, "Child-Care Quality Rating and Improvement Systems: What Can We Learn from Early Adopters?," (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2008), 1, http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_briefs/2008/RAND_RB9377.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

241. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Summary Report: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," 6.

242. National Association of Child Care Resource & Referral Agencies, Keeping Children Safe: A Policy Agenda for Child Care in Emergencies, 9.

243. Senator Mary Landrieu, Opening Statement of Chairman Landrieu before the U.S. Senate, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery, "Children and Disasters: A Progress Report on Addressing Needs," Washington, DC, December 10, 2009, 2, http://hsgac.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Hearings.Hearing&Hearing_id=bba3b475-bd7e-4138-9cdf- 3ed88c17f73e.

244. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, 37.

245. Eligible child care costs may include, but are not limited to labor, facility costs, supplies, and commodities. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, FEMA Disaster Assistance Fact Sheet 9580.107: Public Assistance for Child Care Services, ed. Federal Emergency Management Agency (Washington, DC: FEMA, March 2010), 1, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/government/grant/pa/9580_107.pdf [PDF Help].

246. Ibid., 1-2.

247. Ibid., 1-2.

248. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Progress Report on Children and Disasters: U.S. Agencies Take Modest Steps To Achieve Commission Goals," (Washington, DC: NCCD, May 11, 2010), 11, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100511_NCCD_Progress_Report_FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

249. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Meeting Minutes of the November 10, 2009 Public Meeting," (Washington, DC: NCCD, November 10, 2009), 4-5, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/minutes/20091110_MinutesV02.pdf [PDF Help].

250. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, 37.

251. Administration for Children and Families, "ESF-6. Disaster Response Recommendation to FEMA: Reimbursement for Child Care Assistance," (Washington, DC: HHS, 2007), 1.

252. CCDBG awards are allocated to States based on formulae required by statute. The program lacks the authority to target funds to States affected by a disaster. Ibid., 1-3.

253. Senator Mary Landrieu, Opening Statement of Chairman Landrieu before the U.S. Senate, "Children and Disasters: A Progress Report on Addressing Needs," 2.

254. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Summary Report: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," 6.

255. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Comments: National Disaster Recovery Framework," (Washington, DC: NCCD, February 26, 2010), 1, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100224_NCCD_NDRFCommentsV04FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

256. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Progress Report on Children and Disasters: U.S. Agencies Take Modest Steps To Achieve Commission Goals," 11.

257. Office of Head Start, "Head Start Program Fact Sheet," Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Human Services," http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ohs/about/fy2010.html.

258. Ibid.

259. Ibid.

260. Public Law (P.L.) 110-134.

261. "Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007," http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/Program%20Design%20and%20Management/Head%20Start%20Requirements/H ead%20Start%20Act.

262. Office of Head Start, Head Start Emergency Preparedness Survey, ed. U.S. Department of Human Services (Washington, DC: HHS, December 15, 2009), 1, http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/Program%20Design%20and%20Management/Fiscal/Program%20Management/Ri sk%20Management/ACF-PI-HS-09-09-A1.pdf [PDF Help].

263. Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Emergency Preparedness Manual, ed. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Washington, DC: HHS, 2009), http://headstartresourcecenter.org/assets/files/EPrep%20Manual%20v22.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

264. National Child Traumatic Stress Network, "Understanding Child Traumatic Stress," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, http://www.nctsnet.org/nccts/nav.do?pid=ctr_aud_prnt_under#q13. Exit Disclaimer

265. Alan M. Delamater and E. Brooks Applegate, "Childhood Development and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder After Hurricane Exposure," Traumatology 5, no. 3 (Miami, FL: Sage Publications, 1999): 20-27, http://www.fsu.edu/~trauma/a3v5i3.html. Exit Disclaimer

266. Jane Knitzer and Jill Lefkowitz, Helping the Most Vulnerable Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families, ed. National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health (New York, NY: NCCP, January 2006), 13-15, http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_669.html. Exit Disclaimer

267. This total is based on an average of 180 days per year, for 13. years. National Center for Education Statistics, "Average length of school year and average length of school day, based on selected characteristics," http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pss/tables/table_15.asp. Exit Disclaimer

268. National Center for Education Statistics, "Fast Facts," http://www.nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=372. Exit Disclaimer

269. Ibid.

270. The Departments of Education (ED), Homeland Security (DHS), and Health and Human Services (HHS) have collaborated and developed recommended practices to assist in preparing for emergencies that can be applied to school districts. For a list of selected recommended practices, see Table 2. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Emergency Management: Status of School Districts' Planning and Preparedness, GAO-07-821T, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2007), 11, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07821t.pdf [PDF Help].

271. Ibid., 15.

272. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance, GAO-07-609, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2007), 6, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07609.pdf [PDF Help].

273. Ibid., 21.

274. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Minutes: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," (Washington, DC: NCCD, 2010), 3, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100106_IowaFieldVisit_MinutesV03FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

275. Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center, "REMS Grant Application," U.S. Department of Education, http://rems.ed.gov/index.php?page=REMS_Grant_Application.

276. Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools Technical Assistance Center, "REMS Grantees," U.S. Department of Education, http://rems.ed.gov/index.php?page=REMS_Grantees.

277. SEAs include tribal nations and territories. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 41, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf [PDF Help].

278. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Emergency Management: Most School Districts Have Developed Emergency Management Plans, but Would Benefit from Additional Federal Guidance, 14-15.

279. John F. Pane, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Nidhi Kalra, and Annie J. Zhou, "Effects of Student Displacement in Louisiana During the First Academic Year After the Hurricanes of 2005," Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR) 13(2) (2008):168-211, http://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/2008/RAND_RP1379.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

280. National Child Traumatic Stress Network, "The Effects of Trauma on Schools and Learning," http://www.nctsnet.org/nccts/nav.do?pid=ctr_aud_schl_effects. Exit Disclaimer

281. John F. Pane, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Nidhi Kalra, and Annie J. Zhou, "Effects of Student Displacement in Louisiana During the First Academic Year After the Hurricanes of 2005," 168-211.

282. Jenny Curtin, Creating Trauma-Sensitive Schools: Reducing the Impact of Trauma as a Barrier to Student Learning, ed. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (Deerfield, IL: ISTSS, 2008), 1, http://www.istss.org/source/stresspoints/index.cfm?fuseaction=Newsletter.showThisIssue&Issue_ID=80&Article_ID=1353. Exit Disclaimer

283. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, 11.

284. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Minutes: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," 5.

285. Lisa H. Jaycox, Lindsey K. Morse, Terri Tanielian, and Bradley D. Stein, How Schools Can Help Students Recover from Traumatic Experiences: A Tool Kit for Supporting Long-Term Recovery, (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2006), 9-10, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2006/RAND_TR413.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

286. Ibid., 6.

287. Representative George Miller, Democratic Proposals to Open and Rebuild Gulf Coast Schools and Colleges, (Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, April 2006), 3, http://edlabor.house.gov/publications/katrinareport.pdf [PDF Help].

288. Ibid., 3-4.

289. Richard Apling, Paul Irwin, Ann Lordeman, Rebecca Skinner, and David Smole, "Education and Training Issues Related to Major Disasters," ed. Congressional Research Services (Washington, DC: CRS, November 4, 2005), 3, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA441993&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf [PDF Help].

290. Representative George Miller, Democratic Proposals to Open and Rebuild Gulf Coast Schools and Colleges, 9.

291. Public Law (P.L.) 109-148, "Hurricane Education Recovery Act of 2005," CFDA 84.938, http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/secletter/051230Bill.pdf [PDF Help].

292. Ibid.

293. The law was signed on December 30, 2005. U.S. Department of Education, "Frequently Asked Questions, Emergency Impact Aid for Displaced Students," http://www.hurricanehelpforschools.gov/proginfo/faq-impact.pdf [PDF Help].

294. Government Printing Office, Bill S.2898, "Child Safety, Care and Education Continuity Act of 2010," http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov.

295. Paul Pastorek, Testimony of Paul Pastorek before the U.S. Senate Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Disaster Recovery, Washington, DC, December 10, 2009, 2-3, http://hsgac.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Files.View&FileStore_id=4e18d245-5b8d-46a8-a75a- 9d6bf606d1ba.

296. P.L. 107-110; 42. U.S.C. §11431. et. seq (2001). Title X, Part C of the No Child Left Behind Act.

297. Section 725. of the McKinney-Vento Act defines "homeless children and youth" as individuals who lack a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, including children and youth who: share the housing of other persons due to loss of housing, economic hardship, or a similar reason; live in motels, hotels, trailer parks, or camping grounds due to lack of alternative adequate accommodations; live in emergency or transitional shelters; live in abandoned in hospitals; await foster care placement; have a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; live in cars, parks, public spaces, abandoned buildings, substandard housing, bus or train stations, or similar settings; and are migratory children (as defined in section 1309 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended). P.L. 100-77(1987), http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/leg/esea02/pg116.html#sec725.

298. EHCY funds are allocated to SEAs based on annual poverty data and do not reach school districts until the following academic year. U.S. Department of Education, "Education for Homeless Children and Youths Grants for State and Local Activities," http://www2.ed.gov/programs/homeless/index.html; U.S. Department of Education, "Improving Basic Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies (Title I, Part A)," http://www2.ed.gov/programs/titleiparta/index.html.

299. National Center for Homeless Education, Education for Homeless Children and Youth Program, Data Collection Summary, (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, June 2010), 3, http://center.serve.org/nche/. Exit Disclaimer

300. Section 106 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act for 2006, released on December 30, 2005, provided assistance for homeless youth following the hurricanes in the Gulf Coast in accordance with Section 723 of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. P.L. 109-148, 119 Statute 2797 (2005). http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Additionally, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2009, released September 30, 2008, provided an additional $15. million to remain available through September 2009 for LEAs whose homeless student enrollment had increased due to "hurricanes, floods, or other natural disasters occurring during 2008. for which the President declared a major disaster under title IV of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1974." P.L. 110-329, 122. Statute 3595(2009), http://www.usace.army.mil/CECW/Documents/cecwm/cra/pl_110-329.pdf [PDF Help].

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