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National Commission on Children and Disasters: 2010 Report to the President and Congress

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

Now this resource is supported by the Administration for Children and Families (ACF).

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References (continued)

300. Section 106 of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act for 2006, released on December 30, 2005, provided assistance for homeless youth following the hurricanes in the Gulf Coast in accordance with Section 723 of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act. P.L. 109-148, 119 Statute 2797 (2005). http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov. Additionally, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2009, released September 30, 2008, provided an additional $15. million to remain available through September 2009 for LEAs whose homeless student enrollment had increased due to "hurricanes, floods, or other natural disasters occurring during 2008. for which the President declared a major disaster under title IV of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1974." P.L. 110-329, 122. Statute 3595(2009), http://www.usace.army.mil/CECW/Documents/cecwm/cra/pl_110-329.pdf [PDF Help].

301. National Center for Homeless Education, In Their Own Words: Schools and Students Overcoming Adversity, ed. U.S. Department of Education (Washington, DC: ED, 2007), http://center.serve.org/nche/downloads/itow.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

302. Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools, "Project School Emergency Response to Violence (SERV) Frequency Asked Questions," http://www2.ed.gov/programs/dvppserv/faq.html#event.

303. The National Disaster Recovery Framework should state the importance of providing this information to school systems.

304. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Minutes: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," 4.

305. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Child Welfare: Federal Action Needed to Ensure States Have Plans to Safeguard Children in the Child Welfare System Displaced by Disasters, GAO-06-944, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2006), 1, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06944.pdf [PDF Help].

306. The survey covered all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The nine State plan components, as specified in the 2006. GAO report, are: identify children who may be dispersed; identify caseworkers who may be dispersed; continue services to children who may be dispersed; preserve essential case information; coordinate services within the State; coordinate services outside the State; place children from other States; provide in-home family services; and identify new child welfare cases. Ibid., 20.

307. Public Law (P.L.) 109-288; 120 Stat. 1233(2006).

308. P.L. 109-288; 120 Stat. 1233(2006).

309. Lisa Portune and Sophia I. Gatowski, Ensuring the Unique Needs of Dependency Courts are Met in Disaster Planning Efforts: Dependency Court Planning Templates for Continuity of Operations Plans, (Reno, NV: National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and American Bar Association, 2008), 67, http://www.ncjfcj.org/images/stories/dept/ppcd/pdf/katrina%20ta%20brief%20final.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

310. United States Government Accountability Office, Child Welfare: Federal Action Needed to Ensure States Have Plans to Safeguard Children in the Child Welfare System Displaced by Disasters, GAO-06-944, 1.

311. Although CB published an updated guidance document in 2007, no additional specific planning criteria were promulgated in regulation by the HHS Secretary.

312. Charles Puzzanchera, Benjamin Adams, and Melissa Sickmund, Juvenile Court Statistics 2006-2007, ed. National Center for Juvenile Justice (Pittsburgh, PA: NCJJ, 2010), 9, 50, http://www.ncjjservehttp.org/ncjjwebsite/pdf/jcsreports/jcs2007.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

313. Susan James Andrews and Susan Yeres, An Assessment of the Impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the Juvenile Justice System, ed. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (Washington, DC: OJJDP, 2006), 3, http://gemini.gmu.edu/ebct/Events/Katrina%20final%20report.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

314. Ibid., 7.

315. Juvenile Justice Project of Louisiana (JJPL), Treated Like Trash: Juvenile Detention in New Orleans Before, During, and After Hurricane Katrina, (New Orleans, LA: JJPL, 2006), 10-11, http://www.jjpl.org/PDF/treated_like_trash.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

316. Ibid., 5.

317. Susan James Andrews and Susan Yeres, An Assessment of the Impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the Juvenile Justice System, 4.

318. Ibid., 3.

319. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 49-50, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf [PDF Help].

320. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Progress Report on Children and Disasters: U.S. Agencies Take Modest Steps To Achieve Commission Goals," (Washington, DC: NCCD, May 11, 2010), 14, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100511_NCCD_Progress_Report_FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

321. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, 50.

322. The Working Group includes members from relevant Federal, State, and local agencies and nongovernmental entities with expertise in managing and providing services within juvenile justice systems and the courts, as well as members with disaster management experience. The document is scheduled to be released in January 2011.

323. Lisa Portune and Sophia Gatowski, Ensuring the Unique Needs of Dependency Courts are Met in Disaster Planning Efforts: Dependency Court Planning Templates for Continuity of Operations Plans, 2.

324. Victor E. Flango (ed.), Emergency Preparedness in Dependency Courts: Ten Questions That Courts Serving Abused and Neglected Children Must Address, (Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts): Chapter 1, http://www.icmeducation.org/katrina/chapter1.html. Exit Disclaimer

325. Susan Andrews and Susan Yeres, An Assessment of the Impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the Juvenile Justice System, 11.

326. Ibid.

327. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Minutes: Field Visit, Cedar Rapids, Iowa," (Washington, DC: NCCD, 2010), 10, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100106_IowaFieldVisit_MinutesV03FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

328. Emily Cooke, Special Assistant for Court Improvement, Children's Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, Email Message to Court Improvement Program Coordinators, February 19, 2010.

329. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 53, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf [PDF Help].

330. Ibid., 70.

331. American Red Cross, Testimony of Trevor Riggen, American Red Cross before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management, (Washington, DC: ARC, October 20, 2009), 4, http://www.redcross.org/www-files/Documents/GovernmentRelations/09Oct20RiggenTestimony.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

332. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Meeting Minutes of the Evacuation, Transportation, and Housing Subcommittee," (Washington, DC: NCCD, May 10, 2010), 4, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/NCCD%20Subcommittees/20100510_ETHSubcommitteeReportFINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

333. American Red Cross, "Testimony of Trevor Riggen," 4.

334. Commissioner Bruce Lockwood visited two shelters that were established in response to the flooding and observed that one had three infants, but no cribs, indicating that the standards do not address the need for childspecific beds. ARC also noted that this incident demonstrated a need for local chapters to have agreements in place with local vendors to obtain necessary supplies in case shipping issues arise, which occurred when the local FedEx facility flooded. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Meeting Minutes of the Evacuation, Transportation, and Housing Subcommittee," 4.

335. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Fiscal Year 2010 Homeland Security Grant Program Supplemental Resource: Children in Disasters Guidance, (Washington, DC: DHS, June 2009), 2, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/government/grant/2010/fy10_hsgp_children.pdf [PDF Help].

336. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Meeting Minutes of the November 10, 2009 Public Meeting, (Washington, DC: NCCD, November 10, 2009), 4-5, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/minutes/20091110_MinutesV02.pdf [PDF Help].

337. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Evacuation, Transportation, and Housing Subcommittee, Conference Call, March 11, 2010.

338. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Memorandum to the National Commission on Children and Disasters: Response to the National Commission on Children and Disasters Interim Report, March 19, 2010, 19, Washington, DC.

339. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Progress Report on Children and Disasters: U.S. Agencies Take Modest Steps to Achieve Commission Goals," (Washington, DC: NCCD, May 11, 2010), 15, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100511_NCCD_Progress_Report_FINAL.pdf [PDF Help].

340. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, 53.

341. National Resource Center for Child Protective Services, "Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect in Disaster Emergency Shelters," http://www.nrccps.org/resources/disaster_emergency_shelters.php. Exit Disclaimer

342. Interim housing is defined as the intermediate period of housing assistance that covers the gap between sheltering and the return of disaster survivors to permanent housing. Generally, this period may span from the day after the disaster is declared through up to 18. months. Long-term housing is defined as safe, sanitary, and secure housing that can be sustained without continued disaster-related assistance. Federal Emergency Management Agency, "Glossary/Acronyms," http://www.fema.gov/emergency/disasterhousing/glossary.shtm.

343. Lori Peek, "Children and Disasters: Understanding Vulnerability, Developing Capacities, and Promoting Resilience—An Introduction," Children, Youth and Environment 18, no. 1(2008):4-7.

344. Laurene M. Heyback and Patricia Nix-Hodes, "Reducing Mobility: Good for Kids, Good for Schools," The Beam: The Newsletter for the National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth 9, no. 1 (1999): 5.

345. Anne Westbrook Lauten and Kimberly Leitz, "A Look at the Standards Gap: Comparing Child Protection Responses in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the Indian Ocean Tsunami," Children, Youth and Environments 18, no. 1(2008):187.

346. John Pane, Daniel F. McCaffrey, Nidhi Kalra, and Annie J. Zhou, "Effects of Student Displacement in Louisiana During the First Academic Year After the Hurricanes of 2005," Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR) 13, no. 2(2008): 55, http://www.rand.org/pubs/reprints/2008/RAND_RP1379.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

347. Section 308. of the Stafford Act contains a mandate to ensure that "the distribution of supplies, the processing of applications, and other relief and assistance activities shall be accomplished in an equitable and impartial manner, without discrimination on the grounds of race, color, religion, nationality, sex, age, disability, English proficiency, or economic status." Public Law (P.L.) 93-288, 42. U.S.C. 5151.

348. The Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (PKEMRA) required the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), in coordination with other Federal, State, local, and tribal governments and nongovernmental organizations, to develop the Strategy. Released in January 2009, the Strategy describes how the Nation currently provides housing to disaster survivors and presents a new direction for disaster housing to better meet the needs of survivors.

349. Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Disaster Housing Strategy Annex 4: Disaster Housing Community Site Operations, (Washington, DC: FEMA, 2009), 112, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/disasterhousing/NDHSAnnex4.pdf [PDF Help].

350. Ibid., 112.

351. The Strategy called for the formation of the NDHTF "to provide a full-time, multi-agency focus on disaster housing related issues, to elevate the significance of disaster housing preparedness in all jurisdictions, and to oversee implementation of the Strategy." The NDHTF, comprised of representatives from 15. Federal agencies, leads disaster housing contingency planning and preparedness efforts and advises the FEMA Administrator. Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Disaster Housing Strategy Implementation Plan, (Washington, DC: FEMA, March 2010), 1, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/disasterhousing/ndhs_implementation_plan.pdf [PDF Help].

352. Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Disaster Housing Strategy Annex 4: Disaster Housing Community Site Operations, 112.

353. Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Disaster Housing Strategy Implementation Plan, 14.

354. As stated in FEMA's National Disaster Housing Strategy, wrap-around services "encompass a variety of human and social support that may be required to accompany temporary housing community sites during a disaster, such as health care, schools and daycare, security, social services, maintenance and repair, public transportation, and employment counseling." Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Disaster Housing Strategy, (Washington, DC: FEMA, January 16, 2009), 52, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/disasterhousing/NDHScore.pdf [PDF Help]. The Commission also uses the term to refer to access to mental health and child care services and safe play areas for children.

355. The purpose of the CONOPS is to describe "specific roles and responsibilities and the actions each player must take to execute effective disaster housing operations across all levels of government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector." Ibid., 89.

356. The CONOPS and the Practitioners' Guide were to be completed within ten months following release of the Strategy. However, the deadline was subsequently changed to June 1, 2010, to coincide with the release of President Obama's long-term recovery framework. With the recovery framework on hold, the CONOPS and the Practitioners' Guide are not yet approved.

357. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 58, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf [PDF Help].

358. Shane Townsend and Nathalie Dajko, Rapid Assessments of Temporary Housing Camps for Hurricane- Displaced Children and Families, ed. Save the Children (Westport, CT: Save the Children, 2006), 3, http://www.savethechildren.org/publications/reports/katrina-assessment_final-0706.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

359. Renaissance Village was located about 15. miles north of Baton Rouge (LA) and had a peak population of more than 500 families. Service providers included Head Start and Early Head Start. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Disaster Assistance: Federal Efforts to Assist Group Site Residents with Employment, Services for Families with Children, and Transportation, GAO-09-81, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2008), 39, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d0981.pdf [PDF Help].

360. Ibid., 4.

361. P.L. 109-295; 120 Stat. 1394.

362. Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Disaster Housing Strategy Annex 4: Disaster Housing Community Site Operations, 99.

363. Ibid., 109.

364. Ibid., 110.

365. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Emergency Transit Assistance: Federal Funding for Recent Disasters, and Options for the Future, GAO-08-243, (Washington, DC: GAO, 2008), 6-7, http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d08243.pdf [PDF Help].

366. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Disaster Assistance: Federal Efforts to Assist Group Site Residents with Employment, Services for Families with Children, and Transportation, 4-5.

367. Federal Emergency Management Agency, "Alternative Housing Pilot Program," http://www.fema.gov/about/programs/ahpp/index.shtm.

368. At the program's height in Mississippi, 2,900 cottages were occupied. Mississippi's goal was to permanently install and transfer ownership of 1,200 cottages to individuals for location on individual sites by May 2010, and subsequently dispose of all cottages at transitional sites and demobilize all cottages that were not to be sold. The Mississippi Emergency Management Agency offered 250 of these cottages at auction to the public on June 4, 2010. Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, "Mississippi Alternative Housing," http://www.mscottage.org. Exit Disclaimer

369. In Louisiana, 119 of these Katrina Cottages had been completed in December 2009, with another 230 still to be built. While many of these are to be used as rental housing, the others will be sold to qualified buyers through a program overseen by the Louisiana Recovery Authority. Bill Barrow, "Katrina Cottage Financing Not Going to Waste, Louisiana Recovery Authority Reports," December 8, 2009, http://www.nola.com/hurricane/index.ssf/2009/12/katrina_cottage_financing_not.html.

370. Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, "Mississippi Alternative Housing."

371. Louisiana Recovery Authority, "$74. Million for Louisiana Cottages on the Way."

372. Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, "Mississippi Alternative Housing."

373. Louisiana Recovery Authority, "$74. Million for Louisiana Cottages on the Way." The Mississippi Cottages employ a variety of designs for small-scale, quality-built homes that provide strong resistance to storms. Other design features which are improvements over FEMA trailers include air-conditioned attics, EnergyStar heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, moisture and mold resistant materials, and a front porch. Cottages also reflect Gulf Coast design styles. Federal Emergency Management Agency, "Fact Sheet Awards - Selected Grant Awards For Alternative Housing Pilot Project," http://www.fema.gov/media/fact_sheets/ahpp_awards.shtm.

374. Mississippi Renewal Forum, "Getting to the Future First: Lessons from America in Mississippi's Storm Recovery?" http://www.mississippirenewal.com/

375. Craig Fugate, Testimony of Craig Fugate before the U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Homeland Security, "FEMA Housing: An Examination of Current Problems and Innovative Solutions," Serial No. 111-27, Washington, DC, July 8, 2009, 11, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/.

376. Ibid., 11-12.

377. Sarita Chung and Michael Shannon, "Reuniting Children with Their Families During Disasters: A Proposed Plan for Greater Success," American Journal of Disaster Medicine 2, no. 3(2007):114.

378. Ibid., 114.

379. Mark A Brandenburg, Sue M. Watkins, Karin L. Brandenburg, and Christoph Schieche, "Operation Child-ID: Reunifying Children with Their Legal Guardians after Hurricane Katrina," Disasters 31, no. 3(2007):277-87.

380. Daniel D. Broughton, Ernest E. Allen, Robert E. Hannemann, and Joshua E. Petrikin, "Getting 5000 Families Back Together: Reuniting Fractured Families after a Disaster: The Role of the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children," Pediatrics 117, no. 5(2006):S442-5, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/117/5/S2/S442.

381. During Hurricane Katrina, the National Disaster Medical System (NDMS) was activated to provide patient transport and help facilitate hospital evacuations. More than 4,000 patients were evacuated through the New Orleans airport, and some patients were placed on Air Force aircraft; however, more than half of the patients were placed on National Guard and private aircraft. Only those patients who were evacuated on the Air Force aircraft were entered into the NDMS patient movement-tracking system. Thus, accurate data on all transported patients were not available. Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, S. Rpt. 109-322. Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared, (Washington, DC: GPO, 2006), 414, http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/katrinanation.html.

382. For example: Texas Department of State Health Services, "Medical Special Needs Toolkit," http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/comprep/msn/Tab_J_SNETS_Sheltering.pdf Exit Disclaimer; State of Louisiana, Department of Social Services, "DSS Offers First Look at Hurricane Evacuee-Tracking System," http://dss.louisiana.gov/assets/docs/searchable/pressReleases/2008/05/evacueetracking5-30-.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

383. Waddy Gonzalez, National Mass Evacuation System (NMETS), Presentation to the Evacuation, Transportation, and Housing Subcommittee, November 9, 2009.

384. David Abramson and Richard Garfield, On the Edge: Children and Families Displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Face a Looming Medical and Mental Health Crisis, ed. National Center for Disaster Preparedness, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health (New York. NY, 2006), 3, http://www.ncdp.mailman.columbia.edu/files/On%20the%20Edge%20LCAFH%20Final%20Report_Columbia%20University.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer

385. National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, "Natural Disasters: Is your family prepared?", http://www.missingkids.com/missingkids/servlet/PageServlet?LanguageCountry=en_US&PageId=3252.

386. Federal Emergency Management Agency, "National Emergency Family Registry and Locator System," http://www.fema.gov/media/fact_sheets/nefrls.shtm. 387. Public Law (P.L.) 109-295; 120 Stat. 1394(2006).

388. For example: American Red Cross, "Safe and Well," https://safeandwell.communityos.org/cms/ Exit Disclaimer; Google, "Person Finder: Haiti Earthquake," http://haiticrisis.appspot.com/; Google, "Person Finder: Chile Earthquake," http://chilepersonfinder.appspot.com/; U.S. National Library of Medicine, "Lost Person Finder (LPF)," http://archive.nlm.nih.gov/proj/lpf.php.

389. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency, "National Response Framework, Mass Evacuation Incident Annex," 1, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf_massevacuationincidentannex.pdf [PDF Help].

390. Ibid., 17.

391. National Commission on Children and Disasters, Interim Report, (Washington, DC: NCCD, October 14, 2009), 64, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20091014_508IR_partII.pdf [PDF Help].

392. Tom Rich, Paul Biddinger, Richard Zane, Andrea Hassol, Lucy Savitz, and Margarita Warren, Recommendations for a National Mass Patient and Evacuee Movement, Regulating, and Tracking System, AHRQ Publication Number 09-0039-EF, ed. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (Rockville, MD: AHRQ, 2009), 2-3, http://www.ahrq.gov/prep/natlsystem/.

393. National Commission on Children and Disasters, personal communication with Christy Music (DoD) and Sally Phillips (AHRQ), July 2, 2010.

394. DoD proposes to co-lead this next phase of the initiative with the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), DHS, and FEMA, and will ask stakeholder Departments and non-governmental organizations, such as the Department of Transportation, the Department of Justice, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and ARC, to participate.

395. This contract led to work with the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) to establish patient tracking standards, which may later be expanded to tracking non-patient evacuees.

396. ANSI is a private, nonprofit organization that administers and coordinates the U.S. voluntary standards and conformity assessment system. ANSI collaborates with stakeholders from both industry and government to identify consensus-based solutions to national and global priorities. American National Standards Institute, "About ANSI Overview," http://www.ansi.org/about_ansi/overview/overview.aspx?menuid=1. Exit Disclaimer

397. For example, the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States requested ANSI to "develop a consensus on a 'National Standard for Preparedness' for the private sector." National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, The 9/11. Commission Report, (New York, NY: July 2004), 398, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf [PDF Help]. Exit Disclaimer Based on ANSI's recommendations, in June 2010 DHS adopted three existing standards for the Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification Program, "a partnership between DHS and the private sector that enables private entities to receive emergency preparedness certification from a DHS accreditation system created in coordination with the private sector." US Department of Homeland Security, "Secretary Napolitano Announces New Standards for Private Sector Preparedness," http://www.dhs.gov/ynews/releases/pr_1276616888003.shtm.

398. A potential model for developing a national information sharing capability and standards is the National Juvenile Information Sharing (JIS) Initiative, which identified three components to successful and effective information sharing: effective multi-system collaborations, agreement on privacy and confidentiality practices, and the use of appropriate technology. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency, Guidelines for Juvenile Information Sharing, (Washington, DC: OJJDP, October 2006), 15, http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/215786.pdf [PDF Help].

399. National Commission on Children and Disasters, "Long Term Recovery Workshop: Report of Findings," (Washington, DC: NCCD, 2010), 17-22, http://www.childrenanddisasters.acf.hhs.gov/20100201_WorkshopReportV04_FINAL_8F09.pdf [PDF Help].

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