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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2003

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Chapter 3. Quality of Health Care (continued)

Tables 1-11

Table 1. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Cancer

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
Screening for Breast Cancer
% of women (40 and over) who report they had a mammogram within the past 2 yearsiii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of breast cancers diagnosed at late stageiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Screening for Cervical Cancer
% of women (18 and over) who report they had a Pap smear within the past 3 yearsiii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of cervical cancers diagnosed at late stageiv Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
Screening for Colorectal Cancer
% of men and women (50 and over) who report they ever had a flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopyiii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of men and women (50 and over) who report they had a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within the past 2 yearsiii Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of colorectal cancers diagnosed at late stageiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Cancer Treatmentv
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for all cancers Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom v   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, prostate cancer Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom v   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, breast cancer Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom v   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, lung cancer Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom v   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, colorectal cancer Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom v   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Palliative Carevi
% of people who died of cancer who received hospice care Solid black circlevi            
Median length of stay for cancer patients who received hospice care Solid black circlevi            

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: NHIS, 2000.
iv Source: SEER, 1998-1999. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
v Source: NVSS-M, 2000. This source did not collect information on Asians and NHOPIs separately but in aggregate as Asians or Pacific Islanders. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
vi Source: NHHCS, 2000. Sample size constraints permit black-white comparisons only.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 2. Socioeconomic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Cancer

Measure Income Differencei Educational Differenceii Insurance Differenceiii
<100% 100-199% 200-399% <HS HS Grad Uninsured
Screening for Breast Cancer
% of women (40 and over) who report they had a mammogram within the past 2 yearsiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Screening for Cervical Cancer
% of women (18 and over) who report they had a Pap smear within the past 3 yearsiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Screening for Colorectal Cancer
% of men and women (50 and over) who report they ever had a flexible sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopyiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of men and women (50 and over) who report they had a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) within the past 2 yearsiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Cancer Treatmentv
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for all cancers       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, prostate cancer       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, breast cancer       Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, lung cancer       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Cancer deaths per 100,000 persons per year for most common cancers, colorectal cancer       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  

i Compared with persons with family incomes 400% of Federal poverty threshold or above.
ii Compared with persons with any college education.
iii Compared with person under 65 with any private health insurance.
iv Source: NHIS, 2000.
v Source: NVSS-M, 2000. This source did not collect information for >1 race. This source did not collect information on income or insurance.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian or Alaska Native; NHB=Non-Hispanic black; HS=High school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 3. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Chronic Kidney Disease

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
Management of End-Stage Renal Diseaseiii
% of hemodialysis patients with urea reduction ratio 65% or higher Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Solid black circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of hemodialysis patients with hemoglobin 11 or higher Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle Solid black circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
Renal Transplantationiv
% of dialysis patients registered on the waiting list for transplantation Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom4 Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of patients with treated chronic kidney failure who receive a transplant within 3 years of registration on the waiting list Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom4 Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: CMS's End Stage Renal Disease Clinical Performance Measures Project, 2001. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
iv USRDS, 2000. This source did not collect information on Asians and NHOPIs separately but in aggregate as Asians or Pacific Islanders. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 4. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Diabetes

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
Management of Diabetes
% of adults with diabetes who had a hemoglobin A1c measurement at least once in past yeariii Solid black circle iii Clear circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of adults with diabetes who had a lipid profile in past two yearsiii Solid black circle iii Clear circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of adults with diabetes who had a retinal eye examination in past yeariii Solid black circle iii Clear circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of adults with diabetes who had a foot examination in past yeariii Solid black circle iii Clear circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of adults with diabetes who had an influenza immunization in past yeariii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom iii Clear circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 populationiv *iv iv     Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Hospital admissions for short term complications of diabetes per 100,000 populationiv *iv iv     Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
Hospital admissions for long term complications of diabetes per 100,000 populationiv *iv iv     Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Hospital admissions for lower extremity amputations in patients with diabetes per 1,000 populationv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle      

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: MEPS, 2000. This source did not collect information on Asians and NHOPIs separately but in aggregate as Asians or Pacific Islanders. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
iv Source: HCUP SID 16 State database, 2000. This source categorizes race/ethnicity very differently from other sources. Race/ethnicity information is categorized as a single item: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander. These contrasts compare each group with non-Hispanic whites. An * is inserted in the black column to indicate that estimates for this group could not be produced.
v Source: NHDS, 1998-2000. This source did not collect information for >1 race. Missing rates preclude analysis by ethnicity.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 5. Socioeconomic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Diabetes

Measure Income Differencei Educational Differenceii Insurance Differenceiii
<100% 100-199% 200-399% <HS HS Grad Uninsured
Management of Diabetes
% of adults with diabetes who had a hemoglobin A1c measurement at least once in past yeariii Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle
% of adults with diabetes who had a lipid profile in past two yearsiii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle
% of adults with diabetes who had a retinal eye examination in past yeariii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle
% of adults with diabetes who had a foot examination in past yeariii Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle
% of adults with diabetes who had an influenza immunization in past yeariii Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle

i Compared with persons with family incomes 400% of Federal poverty threshold or above.
ii Compared with persons with any college education.
iii Compared with person under 65 with any private health insurance.
HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 6. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Heart Disease

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
Screening for High Blood Pressure
% of adults who have had their blood pressure measured within the preceding 2 years and can state whether their blood pressure was normal or highiii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Solid black circle Clear circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Screening for High Cholesterol
% of adults who have had their blood cholesterol checked within the preceding 5 years3 Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Counseling on Risk Factors
% of smokers receiving advice to quit smokingiv Solid black circle iv Clear circle   Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarctionv
% of AMI patients administered aspirin within 24 hours of admission *v Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottomv Clear circle   Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of AMI patients with aspirin prescribed at discharge *v Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottomv Clear circle   Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of AMI patients administered beta blocker within 24 hours of admission *v Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottomv Clear circle   Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of AMI patients with beta blocker prescribed at discharge *v v Clear circle   Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of AMI patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction prescribed ACE inhibitor at discharge *v v Clear circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of AMI patients given smoking cessation counseling while hospitalized *v v Clear circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
Treatment of Acute Heart Failure
% of heart failure patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction prescribed ACE inhibitor at dischargev *v Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottomv Solid black circle   Solid black circle Solid black circle
Management of Hypertension
% of adults with hypertension whose blood pressure is under controlvi Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle   Solid black circle Clear circle
Management of Congestive Heart Failure
Hospital admissions for congestive heart failure per 100,000 populationvii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle      

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: NHIS, 1998.
iv Source: MEPS, 2000. This source did not collect information on Asians and NHOPIs separately but in aggregate as Asians or Pacific Islanders. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
v Source: Medicare Quality Improvement Organization program. This source categorizes race/ethnicity very differently from other sources. Race/ethnicity information is categorized as a single item: non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander. These contrasts compare each group with non-Hispanic whites. An * is inserted in the Black column to indicate that estimates for this group could not be produced.
vi Source: NHANES, 1999-2000.
vii Source: NHDS, 2000. This source did not collect information for >1 race. Missing rates preclude analysis by ethnicity.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 7. Socioeconomic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Heart Disease

Measure Income Differencei Educational Differenceii Insurance Differenceiii
<100% 100-199% 200-399% <HS HS Grad Uninsured
Screening for High Blood Pressure
% of adults who have had their blood pressure measured within the preceding 2 years and can state whether their blood pressure was normal or highiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Screening for High Cholesterol
% of adults who have had their blood cholesterol checked within the preceding 5 yearsiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Counseling on Risk Factors
% of smokers receiving advice to quit smokingv Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Management of Hypertension
% of adults with hypertension whose blood pressure is under controlvi Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle  

i Compared with persons with family incomes 400% of Federal poverty threshold or above.
ii Compared with persons with any college education.
iii Compared with person under 65 with any private health insurance.
iv Source: NHIS, 1998.
v Source: MEPS, 2000.
vi Source: NHANES, 1999-2000.
HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 8. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: HIV/AIDS

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
AIDS Prevention
New AIDS cases per 100,000 population 13 and overiii *iii iii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Management of HIV/AIDS
HIV-infection deaths per 100,000 populationiv Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom iv Solid black circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: CDC, 2000. This source categorizes race/ethnicity very differently from other sources. Race/ethnicity information is categorized as a single item: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asians or Pacific Islanders. These contrasts compare each group with non-Hispanic whites. An * is inserted in the black column to indicate that estimates for this group could not be produced.
iv Source: NVSS-M, 2000. This source did not collect information on Asians and NHOPIs separately but in aggregate as Asian or Pacific Islander. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 9. Socioeconomic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: HIV/AIDS

Measure Income Differencei Educational Differenceii Insurance Differenceiii
<100% 100-199% 200-399% <HS HS Grad Uninsured
Management of HIV/AIDS
HIV-infection deaths per 100,000 population       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  

i Compared with persons with family incomes 400% of Federal poverty threshold or above.
ii Compared with persons with any college education.
iii Compared with persons under 65 with any private health insurance.
Source: NVSS-M, 2000.
HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 10. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Maternal and Child Health

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
Maternity Careiii
% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care in first trimester Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of live born infants with low birth weight (<2500 grams) Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of live born infants with very low birth weight (<1500 grams) Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, all Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, birth weight >2499 grams Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, birth weight 1500-2499 grams Solid black circle Clear circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Solid black circle Solid black circle
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, birth weight <1500 grams Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
Immunization, Childhoodiv
% of children 19-35 months who received all recommended vaccines Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of children 19-35 months who received 4 doses of DPaT vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of children 19-35 months who received 3 doses of polio vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of children 19-35 months who received 1 dose of MMR vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of children 19-35 months who received 3 doses of Hib vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of children 19-35 months who received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Solid black circle
% of children 19-35 months who received 1 dose of varicella vaccine Solid black circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle
Immunization, Adolescentv
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 3 or more doses of hepatitis B vaccine Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Solid black circle
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 2 or more doses of MMR vaccine Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 1 or more doses of Td booster Solid black circle Solid black circle Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 3 or more doses of varicella vaccine Solid black circle Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Clear circle Solid black circle Solid black circle
Childhood Dental Care
% of children 2-17 with a dental visitvi Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottomvi Clear circle   Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: NVSS, 2000. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
iv Source: NIS, 2001.
v Source: NHIS, 2000.
vi Source: MEPS, 1999. This source did not collect information on Asians and NHOPIs separately but in aggregate. This source did not collect information for >1 race.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 10. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Maternal and Child Health (continued)

Measure Racial Differencei Ethnic Differenceii
Black Asian NHOPI AI/AN >1 Race NHB Hispanic
Treatment of Pediatric Gastroenteritis
Hospital admissions for pediatric gastroenteritis per 100,000 populationiii *iii iii     Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom

i Compared with whites.
ii Compared with non-Hispanic whites.
iii Source: HCUP SID 16 State database, 2000. This source categorizes race/ethnicity very differently from other sources. Race/ethnicity information is categorized as a single item: Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander. These contrasts compare each group with non-Hispanic whites. An * is inserted in the Black column to indicate that estimates for this group could not be produced.
NHOPI=Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; AI/AN=American Indian/Alaska Native; HS=high school

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

Return to Contents

Table 11. Socioeconomic Differences in Effectiveness of Care: Maternal and Child Health

Measure Income Differencei Educational Differenceii Insurance Differenceiii
<100% 100-199% 200-399% <HS HS Grad Uninsured
Maternity Careiv
% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care in first trimester       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
% of live born infants with low birth weight (<2500 grams)       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
% of live born infants with very low birth weight (<1500 grams)       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, all births       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, birth weight >2499 grams       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, birth weight 1500-2499 grams       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Infant mortality per 1000 live births, birth weight <1500 grams       Solid black circle Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Maternal deaths per 100,000 live births       Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom  
Immunization, Childhoodv
% of children 19-35 months who received all recommended vaccines Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
% of children 19-35 months who received 4 doses of DPaT vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
% of children 19-35 months who received 3 doses of polio vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
% of children 19-35 months who received 1 dose of MMR vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
% of children 19-35 months who received 3 doses of Hib vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
% of children 19-35 months who received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
% of children 19-35 months who received 1 dose of varicella vaccine Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom      
Immunization, Adolescentvi
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 3 or more doses of hepatitis B vaccine Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle     Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 2 or more doses of MMR vaccine Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle     Solid black circle
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 1 or more doses of tetanus-diptheria booster Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle     Solid black circle
% of adolescents (13-15) who received 3 or more doses of varicella vaccine Solid black circle Solid black circle Solid black circle     Solid black circle
Childhood Dental Care
% of children 2-17 with a dental visit in the past yearvii Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom     Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom

i Compared with persons with family incomes 400% of Federal poverty threshold or above.
ii Compared with mothers with any college education.
iii Compared with person under 65 with any private health insurance.
iv Source: NVSS, 2000.
v Source: NIS, 2001.
vi Source: NHIS, 2000.
vii Source: MEPS, 1999.

Key to Quality of Health Care Tables:

Solid black circle: Selected population and comparison population receive about same quality of health care

Circle with solid black half on top, and white half on bottom: Selected population receives better quality care than the comparison population

Circle with solid white half on top, and black half on bottom: Selected population receives worse quality care than the comparison population

Clear circle: Data are collected but do not meet criteria for statistical reliability

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