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Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or use insulin properly; cells are starved for sugar and damage to the heart, kidneys, nerves, and eyes can occur. In 2002, over 18 million people in the United States had diabetes and 1.3 million new cases were diagnosed12. Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, nontraumatic lower extremity amputation, and ESRD and is the sixth leading cause of death. In 2002, costs of diabetes totaled $132 billion, including over $90 billion in direct medical expenditures13. Blacks, Hispanics, and AI/ANs are more likely to have diabetes and its complications and are more likely to die from diabetes14,15,16. Effective management of diabetes includes hemoglobin A1c management, lipid management, eye examination, foot examination, and influenza immunization17,18.
Figure 2.2. Adults with diabetes who had all five recommended diabetic services in the past year, by race, ethnicity, and income, 2000-2001
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Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2000-2001.
Reference population: Civilian, noninstitutionalized population with diabetes age 18 and older.
Note: Recommended diabetic services are 1) hemoglobin A1c in past year, 2) lipid profile in past 2 years, 3) retinal eye examination in past year, 4) foot examination in past year, and 5) influenza immunization in past year. Respondents with missing values are excluded from the measure. For findings related to all diabetes measures (including each diabetic service), go to Tables 2.2a and 2.2b. Available data do not support analyses stratified by SES.
- In 2001, the proportion of adults with diabetes who received all five recommended diabetic services was lower among blacks compared with whites and among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites (Figure 2.2).
- In 2000 and 2001, differences across income groups in the proportion of adults with diabetes who received all five services were not significant.
- The proportion of adults with diabetes who received all five services did not change significantly from 2000 to 2001 for any racial, ethnic, or income group.
- In multivariate models controlling for age, gender, income, education, insurance, and residence location, blacks were 38% and Hispanics were 33% less likely than their respective comparison groups to receive all services in 2001.