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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004

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Access to Health Care

Health insurance. An important measure of access to care is health insurance coverage.

Figure 4.39. Children with special health care needs who were without health insurance at some point in the past year by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001

 Figure 4.39. CSHCN who were without health insurance at some point in the past year by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2001.

Reference population: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 0 to 17 with special health care needs.

Figure 4.40. Children with special health care needs who were without health insurance at some point in the past year by race (top) and ethnicity (bottom) stratified by income, 2001

Figure 4.40. CSHCN who were without health insurance at some point in the past year by race stratified by income, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Figure 4.40. CSHCN who were without health insurance at some point in the past year by ethnicity stratified by income, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2001.

Reference population: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 0 to 17 with special health care needs.

  • In 2001, the proportion of CSHCN reported as having no health insurance at some time in the past year was higher among black and multiple race CSHCN compared with white CSHCN; among Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic white CSHCN; among poor, near poor, and middle income compared with high income CSHCN; and among CSHCN whose parents had less than a high school education or were high school graduates compared with CSHCN whose parents had any college education (Figure 4.39).
  • Income explains some but not all of the differences in access to care among CSHCN by ethnicity. For example, although differences in health insurance between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites tend to attenuate or disappear among CSHCN in high income families, they persist among the poor (Figure 4.40). In contrast, differences among racial groups are not significant at all income levels.

Figure 4.41. Currently insured children with special health care needs whose insurance is not adequate by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001

 Figure 4.41. Currently insured CSHCN whose insurance is not adequate by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2001.

Reference population: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 0 to 17 with special health care needs who have health insurance.

Note: Among CSHCN with insurance, adequacy of health insurance assesses the degree to which benefits cover the child's needs, uncovered costs are reasonable, and the child is able to see the providers he or she needs.

  • In 2001, the proportion of CSHCN with insurance reported as having less than adequate insurance was higher among Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic white CSHCN; among poor, near poor, and middle income compared with high income CSHCN; and among CSHCN whose parents had less than a high school education compared with CSHCN whose parents had any college education (Figure 4.41). Racial differences were not significant.

Usual source of care. Having a usual source of care is another important part of access to care.

Figure 4.42. Children with special health care needs who have no usual source of health care by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001

Figure 4.42. CSHCN who have no usual source of health care by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2001.

Reference population: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 0 to 17 with special health care needs.

  • In 2001, the proportion of CSHCN reported as having no usual source of care was higher among black than white CSHCN, Hispanic than non-Hispanic white CSHCN, poor and near poor than high income CSHCN, and CSHCN whose parents had less than a high school education or were high school graduates than CSHCN whose parents had any college education (Figure 4.42).

Patient perceptions of need. CSHCN require many different types of health care services.

Figure 4.43. Children with special health care needs who reported any unmet needs for specific health care services in the past year by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001

 Figure 4.43. CSHCN who reported any unmet needs for specific health care services in the past year by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2001.

Reference population: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 0 to 17 with special health care needs.

  • In 2001, the proportion of CSHCN reported as having unmet needs for specific health care services was higher among black, AI/AN, and multiple race CSHCN compared with white CSHCN; Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic white CSHCN; poor, near poor, and middle income compared with high income CSHCN; and CSHCN whose parents had less than a high school education compared with CSHCN whose parents had any college education (Figure 4.43).

Difficulty getting care. Children with special health care needs often require care from specialists.

Figure 4.44. Children with special health care needs needing specialty care who reported difficulty getting a referral in the past year by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001

Figure 4.44. CSHCN needing specialty care who reported difficulty getting a referral in the past year by race, ethnicity, income, and parental education, 2001. Select Full Text Description [D] for details.

[D] Select for Full Text Description.

Source: National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2001.

Reference population: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 0 to 17 with special health care needs who needed specialty care.

  • In 2001, the proportion of CSHCN needing specialty care reported as having difficulty getting a referral was higher among NHOPI compared with white CSHCN; Hispanic compared with non-Hispanic white CSHCN; poor and near poor compared with high income CSHCN; and CSHCN whose parents had less than a high school education compared with CSHCN whose parents had any college education (Figure 4.44). Black-white differences were not significant.

 

 

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