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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2005

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References

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2 Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.

3 American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures 2005. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/content/STT_1x_Cancer_Facts__Figures_2005.aspExit Disclaimer

4 Hoyert DL, Kung HC, Smith BL. Deaths: preliminary data for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2005 Feb 28;53(15):1-48.

5 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. NHLBI Fact Book Fiscal Year 2004. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/factpdf.htm

6 Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, et al. (eds). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2002. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; (based on November 2004 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER Web site 2005. http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2002 Accessed May 2, 2005.

7 Shavers VL, Brown ML. Racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Mar 6;94(5):334-57.

8 Ward E, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, et al. Cancer disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004 Mar-Apr;54(2):78-93.

9 Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Area Socioeconomic Variations in U.S. Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Stage, Treatment, and Survival, 1975–1999. NCI Cancer Surveillance Monograph Series, No. 4. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2003. NIH Pub. No. 03-5417. http://seer.cancer.gov/publications/ses/ Accessed May 2, 2005.

10 Making Cancer Health Disparities History. Report of the Trans-HHS Cancer Health Disparities Progress Review Group. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2004.

11 HHS Affirms Value of Mammography for Detecting Breast Cancer. http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2002pres/20020221.html Accessed August 22, 2005.

12 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2002. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/Exit Disclaimer. Access July 6, 2010.

13 Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990-1998. Diabetes Care. 2000 Sep; 23(9):1278-83.

14 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Surveillance, 1999. [Statistics. 1999 surveillance report]. Atlanta: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1999. http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ Accessed November 7, 2003.

15 Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care. 1998 Apr; 21(4):518-24.

16 National Quality Forum. National voluntary consensus standards for adult diabetes care: A consensus report. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; 2002.

17 National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance. National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance Performance Measurement Set for Adult Diabetes. Chicago, IL: NDQIA; 2003.

18 U.S. Renal Data System, USRDS 2005 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2005. http://www.usrds.org/atlas.htm

19 Life Alliance Organ Recovery Agency, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami. Organ and Tissue Donation Facts. Minorities and Donation. http://surgery.med.miami.edu/x274.xmlExit Disclaimer Accessed July 6, 2010.

20 Weinstock B. Reducing health disparities: why and how companies are making it their business. Health Disparities Initiative Issue Brief. Washington, DC: Washington Business Group on Health; 2003. http://www.businessgrouphealth.org/pdfs/business_case_issuebrief.pdfExit Disclaimer Accessed August 23, 3005.

21 Sehgal AR. Impact of quality improvement efforts on race and sex disparities in hemodialysis. JAMA. 2003 Feb 26;289(8):996-1000.

22 Churak JM. Racial and ethnic disparities in renal transplantation. J Natl Med Assoc. 2005 Feb;97(2):153-60.

23 American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics — 2005 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2005.

24 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Heart disease and medications. In: Act in Time to Heart Attack Signs. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/actintime/hdm/hdm.htm Accessed May 12, 2005.

25 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. Basic statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm

26 Glynn M, Rhodes P. Estimated HIV prevalence in the United States at the end of 2003. 2005 National HIV Prevention Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 12-15, 2005; Abstract 595.

27 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. A glance at the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

28 Medicaid and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Fact Sheet; September 2004.

29 Clinical management of the HIV-infected adult: a manual for midlevel clinicians. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration; revised 2003. http://www.seatec.emory.edu/clinicalprotocols/clinical_protocols_manual2003.pdfExit Disclaimer Accessed May 11, 2005.

30 HIV and AIDS—United States, 1981-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Jun 1;50(21):430-4. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5021a2.htm Accessed May 11, 2005.

31 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2003. Vol. 15. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2004. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats/2003SurveillanceReport.htm Accessed May 11, 2005.

32 Demyttenaere K, Bruffaerts R, Posada-Villa J, et al. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA. 2004 Jun 2;291(21):2581-90.

33 Wang PS, Berglund P, Olfson M, et al. Failure and delay in initial treatment contact after first onset of mental disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005 June;62(6):603-13.

34 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings. Rockville, MD; Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies; 2004. NHDUH Series H-25, DHHS Pub. No. SMA 04-3964.

35 Mark T, Coffey RM, McKusick D, et al. National Estimates of Expenditures for Mental Health Services and Substance Abuse Treatment, 1991-2001. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment and Center for Mental Health Services; 2005. DHHS Pub. No. SMA 05-3999.

36 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Mental Health: Culture, Race, Ethnicity—A Supplement to Mental Health: Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary. Rockville MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services; 2001.

37 Melfi C, Croghan TW, Hanna MP, Robinson RL. Racial variation in antidepressant treatment in a Medicaid population. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Jan;61(1):16-21.

38 Kales H, Blow FC, Bingham CR, et al. Race, psychiatric diagnosis, and mental health care utilization in older patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000 Fall;8(4):301-9.

39 Segal S, Bola JR, Watson MA. Race, quality of care, and antipsychotic prescribing practices in psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv. 1996 Mar;47(3):282-6.

40 Chung H, Mahler JC, Kakuma T. Racial differences in treatment of psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatr Serv. 1995 Jun;46(6):586-91.

41 Citrome L, Yeomans D. Do guidelines for severe mental illness promote physical health and well-being? J Psychopharmacol. 2005 Nov;19(6 Suppl):102-9.

42 American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder. (2nd Ed.) Washington, DC; American Psychiatric Association; 2000.

43 Altshuler LL, Cohen LS, Moline ML. et al. Treatment of depression in women: a summary of the expert consensus guidelines. J Psychiatr Pract. 2001; 7(3):185-208.

44 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Matching Treatment to Patient Needs in Opioid Substitution Therapy. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; 1995. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series #20, DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 95 -3049.

45 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; 2004. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series #40, DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 04 -3939.

46 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Co-Occurring Disorders. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; 2005. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series #42. DHHS Pub. No. (SMA) 05-3922.

47 Wells K, Sherbourne C, Duan N, et al. Quality improvement for depression in primary care: do patients with subthreshold depression benefit in the long run? Am J Psychiatry. 2005 June;162(6):1149-57.

48 Sirey, JA, Bruce ML, Alexopoulos GS. The Treatment Initiation Program: an intervention to improve depression outcomes in older adults. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Jan;162(1):184-86.

49 Lethbridge-Cejku M, Shiller JS, Bernadel L. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Stat 10 2004 Jul;(222):1-151. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_222acc.pdf Accessed March 15, 2005.

50 Dey AN, Bloom B. Summary health statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey, 2003. Vital Health Stat. 10. 2005 Mar9223):1-78. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_223.pdf Accessed November 7, 2005.

51 Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, et al. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(4):487-94.

52 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Morbidity & Mortality: 2004 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 2004.

53 Krishnan JA, Diette GB, Skinner EA, et al. Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jul 9;161(13):1660-8.

54 Zoratti EM, Havstad S, Rodriguez J, et al. Health service use by African Americans and Caucasians with asthma in a managed care setting. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Aug;158(2):371-7.

55 National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Strategy for Addressing Health Disparities FY 2002 — 2006. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/resources/docs/plandisp.htm Accessed August 23, 2005.

56 Davis MM. Race-based immunization recommendations and the potential to reduce health disparities. JAMA. 2004 May 12;291(18):2253-55.

57 Flannery B, Schrag S, Bennett NM, et al; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. Impact of childhood vaccination on racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. JAMA. 2004 May 12;291(18):2197-2203.

58 American Lung Association. Pneumonia fact sheet; June 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/lung-disease/influenza/in-depth-resources/pneumonia-fact-sheet.html Accessed July 6, 2010, 2005.

59 Jones A. The National Nursing Home Survey: 1999 summary. Vital Health Stat 13. 2002 Jun;(152):1-116.

60 National Center for Health Statistics. Table 1. Number of home health and hospice care agencies, current patients, and discharges: United States, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000. ftp://ftp.cdc.gov/pub/Health_Statistics/NCHS/Datasets/NHHCS/Trends/TABLE1HHC2000.pdf Accessed November 4, 2004.

61 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Table 2: National health expenditures aggregate amounts and average annual percent change, by type of expenditure: selected calendar years 1980-2003. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/ Accessed May 31, 2005.

62 AARP. Nursing Homes. Washington, DC: AARP; 2001. Pub. No. FS10R.

63 Gabrel CS. Characteristics of elderly nursing home current residents and discharges: data from the 1997 National Nursing Home Survey. Adv Data. 2000 Apr 25;(312):1-15.

64 Mor V, Zinn J, Angelelli J, et al. Driven to tiers: socioeconomic and racial disparities in the quality of nursing home care. Milbank Q. 2004 Jun 82(2):227-56.

65 Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. (Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, Eds.) Washington: DC. National Academy Press; 2000.

66 Zhan C, Miller MR. Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA. 2003 Oct 8;290(14):1868-74.

67 Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA. 1998 Apr 15;279(15):1200-5.

68 Lesar TS, Lomaestro BM, Pohl H. Medication-prescribing errors in a teaching hospital. A 9-year experience. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Jul 28;157(14):1569-76.

69 Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, et al. Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA. 1997 Jan 22-29;277(4):301-6.

70 Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events. Implications for prevention. ADE Prevention Study Group. JAMA. 1995 Jul 5;274(1):29-34.

71 Romano PS, Geppert JJ, Davies S, et al. A national profile of patient safety in U.S. hospitals. Health Aff (Millwood). 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):154-66.

72 Coffey RM, Andrews RM, Moy E. Racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in estimates of AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators. Medical Care. 2005 Mar;43(3 Suppl): I48-I57.

73 Zhan C, Correa-de-Araujo R, Bierman AS, et al. Suboptimal prescribing in elderly outpatients: potentially harmful drug-drug and drug-disease combinations. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Feb;53(2):262-7.

74 Berry LL, Seiders K, Wilder SS. Innovations in access to care: a patient-centered approach. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Oct 7;139(7):568-74.

75 Leddy KM, Kaldenberg DO, Becker BW. Timeliness in ambulatory care treatment. An examination of patient satisfaction and wait times in medical practices and outpatient test and treatment facilities. J Ambul Care Manage. 2003 Apr-Jun;26(2):138-49.

76 Schellinger PD, Warach S. Therapeutic time window of thrombolytic therapy following stroke. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2004 Jul;6(4):288-94.

77 Kwan J, Hand P, Sandercock P. Improving the efficiency of delivery of thrombolysis for acute stroke: a systematic review. QJM. 2004 May;97(5):273-9.

78 Kinchen KS, Sadler J, Fink N, et al. The timing of specialist evaluation in chronic kidney disease and mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Sep 17;137(6):479-86.

79 Himelhoch S, Weller WE, Wu AW, et al. Chronic medical illness, depression, and use of acute medical services among Medicare beneficiaries. Med Care. 2004 Jun;42(6):512-21.

80 Caro JJ, Ward AJ, O'Brien JA. Lifetime costs of complications resulting from type 2 diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2002 Mar;25(3):476-81.

81 Ramsey SD, Newton K, Blough D, et al. Patient-level estimates of the cost of complications in diabetes in a managed-care population. Pharmacoeconomics. 1999 Sep;16(3):285-95.

82 Mellon M, Parasuraman B. Pediatric asthma: improving management to reduce cost of care. J Manag Care Pharm. 2004 Mar-Apr;10(2):130-41.

83 Owens PL, Thompson J, Elixhauser A, Ryan K. Care of Children and Adolescents in U.S. Hospitals. HCUP Fact Book No. 4. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003. http://www.ahrq.gov/data/hcup/factbk4/factbk4.pdf Accessed May 10, 2005.

84 McCaig LF, Burt CW. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey:2002 emergency department summary.Adv Data. 2004 Mar 18;(340):1-34. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad340.pdf Accessed February 18, 2005.

85 Institute of Medicine, Committee on the National Quality Report on Health Care Delivery. Envisioning the National Health Care Quality Report. (Hurtado MP, Swift EK, Corrigan JM, Eds.) Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001.

86 Stewart M, Brown JB, Donner A, et al. The impact of patient-centered care on outcomes. J Fam Pract. 2000 Sep;49(9):796-804.

87 Anderson EB. Patient-centeredness: a new approach. Nephrol News Issues. 2002 Nov;16(12):80-2.

88 Michie S, Miles J, Weinman J. Patient-centeredness in chronic illness: what is it and does it matter? Patient Educ Couns. 2003 Nov;51(3):197-206.

89 Baker D, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. Am J Public Health 1997 Jun;87(6):1027-30. Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; November 2000, p. 11- 9.

90 Gazmararian J, Williams MV, Peel J, Baker DW. Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease. Patient Educ Couns. 2003 Nov;51(3):267-75.

91 Parker RM, Ratzan SC, Lurie N. Health literacy: a policy challenge for advancing high-quality health care. Health Aff (Millwood). 2003 Jul-Aug;22(4):147-53.

92 Selden C, Zorn M, Ratzan S, Parker RM, compilers. Health Literacy: January 1990 through October 1999 [bibliography]. February 2000; p. vi. (Current Bibliographies in Medicine; CBM 2000-1). Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; November 2000, p. 11-20.

93 Scott TL, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, Baker DW. Health literacy and preventive health care use among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. Med Care. 2002 May;40(5):395-404. Cited in: Gazmararian JA, Curran JW, Parker RM, et al. Public health literacy in America: an ethical imperative. Am J Prev Med. 2005 Apr;28(3):317-22.

94 Williams M, Baker DW, Parker RM, Nurss JR. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Intern Med 1998 Jan 26;158(2):166-72. Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; November 2000, p. 11 - 9.

95 Williams M, Baker DW, Honig EG, et al. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest. 1998 Oct;114(4):1008-15. Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; November 2000, p. 11 - 9.

96 Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Clark WS. Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. J Gen Intern Med. 1998 Dec;13(12):791-8. Cited in: Gazmararian JA, Curran JW, Parker RM, et al. Public health literacy in America: an ethical imperative. Am J Prev Med. 2005 Apr;28(3):317-22.

97 Baker DW, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, et al. Functional health literacy and the risk of hospital admission among Medicare managed care enrollees. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1278-83. Cited in: Gazmararian JA, Curran JW, Parker RM, et al. Public health literacy in America: an ethical imperative. Am J Prev Med. 2005 Apr;28(3):317-22.

98 Berkman N, DeWalt D, Pignone MP, et al. Literacy and Health Outcomes. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 87. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. AHRQ Pub. No. 04-E007-1.

99 Institute of Medicine, Committee on Health Literacy. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. (Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA, Eds.) Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.

100 Rhoades DR, McFarland KF, Finch WH, Johnson AO. Speaking and interruptions during primary care office visits. Fam Med. 2001 Jul-Aug;33(7):528-32.

101 Weech-Maldonado R, Morales LS, Spritzer K, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in parents' assessments of pediatric care in Medicaid managed care. Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):575-94.

102 Johnson R, Saha S, Arbelaez JJ, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in patient perceptions of bias and cultural competence in health care. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 Feb;19(2):101-10.

103 Weech-Maldonado R, Morales LS, Elliot M, et al. Race/ethnicity, language, and patients' assessments of care in Medicaid managed care. Health Serv Res. 2003 Jun;38(3):789-808.

104 Hall JA, Dornan MC. Patient sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of satisfaction with medical care: a meta-analysis. Soc. Sci. Med. 1990;30(7):811-18.

105 Morales LS, Elliott MN, Weech-Maldonado R, et al. Differences in CAHPS adult survey reports and ratings by race and ethnicity: an analysis of the National CAHPS benchmarking data 1.0. Health Serv Res. 2001 Jul;36(3):595-617.

106 Murray-Garcia JL, Selby JV, Schmittdiel J, et al. Racial and ethnic differences in a patient survey: patients' values, ratings, and reports regarding physician primary care performance in a large health maintenance organization. Med Care. 2000 Mar;38(3):300-10.

107 Lurie N, Zhan C, Sangl J, et al. Variation in racial and ethnic differences in consumer assessments of health care. Am J Manag Care. 2003 Jul;9(7):502-9.

108 Fox JG, Storms DM. A different approach to sociodemographic predictors of satisfaction with health care. Soc Sci Med [A]. 1981 Sep;15(5):557-64.

109 Pascoe GC. Patient satisfaction in primary health care: a literature review and analysis. Eval Program Plann. 1983;6(3-4):185-210.

110 Hargraves JL, Hays RD, Cleary PD. Psychometric properties of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (CAHPS) 2.0 adults core survey. Health Serv Res. 2003 Dec;38(6 Pt 1):1509-27.

 

 

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