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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2005

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References

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2 Barnes J, Bennett C. The Asian population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; February 2002. http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-16.pdf

3 Grieco E. The Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population: 2000. Census 2000 Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; December 2001. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-14.pdf

4 Institute of Medicine, Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington DC: National Academies Press; 2003.

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23 National Health Service Corps Uniform Data System. Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions; calendar year 2003.

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27 Hobbs F, Stoops N. Demographic trends in the 20th century. Census 2000 Special Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.; November 2002. http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/censr-4.pdf

28 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau. Women's Health USA 2003. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2003.

29 Hoyert DL, Kung HC, Smith BL. Deaths: preliminary data for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2005 Feb 28;53(15):1-48. Cited in: Life expectancy hits record high. Gender gap narrows. National Center for Health Statistics Fact Sheet; February 28, 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/05facts/lifeexpectancy.htm

30 Arias E, Anderson RN, Kung HC, et al. Deaths: final data for 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2003 Sep 18;52(3):1-115.

31 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Women's Health USA 2004. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2004.

32 National Women's Law Center and Oregon Health & Science University. Making the Grade on Women's Health: A National and State-by-State Report Card. Washington, DC: National Women's Law Center; 2004.

33 Salganicoff A, Beckerman JZ, Wyn R, Ojeda VD. Women's Health in the United States: Health Coverage and Access to Care. Washington, DC: Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; 2002.

34 Health care for minority women. Program Brief. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; May 2002. AHRQ Pub. No. 03-P020.

35 Health coverage and access challenges for low-income women. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Issue Brief; March 2004. http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/index.cfm.Exit Disclaimer

36 Racial and ethnic disparities in women's health coverage and access to care:. Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Issue Brief; March 2004. http://www.kff.org/womenshealth/index.cfm.Exit Disclaimer

37 National Institutes of Health, Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases—National Resource Center. Osteoporosis overview. Fact Sheet; 2003 (rev June 2005).

38 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.) 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off; November 2000.

39 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health; May 2000.

40 National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Women's Heart Health: Developing a National Health Education Action Plan. Strategy Development Workshop Report, March 26-27, 2001. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2001. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/heart/other/whhw.pdf

41 Tabenkin H, Goodwin MA, Zyzanski SJ, et al. Gender differences in time spent during direct observation of doctor-patient encounters. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2004 Apr;13(3):341-9.

42 Missed opportunities in preventive counseling for cardiovascular diseases—United States 1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998 Feb 13;47(5):91-5.

43 Stone P, Thompson B, Anderson HV, et al. Influence of race, sex, and age on management of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction: the TIMI III Registry. JAMA. 1996 Apr 10;275(14):1104-12.

44 Caulin-Glaser T, Blum M, Schmeizl R, et al. Gender differences in referral to cardiac rehabilitation programs after revascularization. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 2001 Jan-Feb;21(1):24-30.

45 Thomas R, Miller NH, Lamendola C, et al. National Survey on Gender Differences in Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs. Patient characteristics and enrollment patterns. J Cardiopulm Rehabil. 1996 Nov-Dec;16(6):402-12.

46 American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics — 2003 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2002.

47 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2002. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003.

48 American Diabetes Association. Diabetes statistics for women. http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/Exit Disclaimer

49 National Quality Forum. National Voluntary Consensus Standards for Adult Diabetes Care: A Consensus Report. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; 2002.

50 National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance Performance Measurement Set for Adult Diabetes. Chicago, IL: National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance; 2003.

51 Hamilton B, Martin JA, Sutton PD, et al. Births: preliminary data for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2004 Nov 23; 53(9):1-17.

52 Sackett K, Pope RK, Erdley WS. Demonstrating a positive return on investment for a prenatal program at a managed care organization. An economic analysis. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2004 Apr-Jun;18(2):117-27.

53 Huntington J, Connell FA. For every dollar spent—the cost-savings argument for prenatal care. N Engl J Med. 1994 Nov 10;331(19):1303-7.

54 Self-assessed health status and selected behavioral risk factors among persons with and without health-care coverage--United States, 1994-1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998 Mar 13;47(9):176-80.

55 Franks P, Clancy, CM, Gold, MR, Nutting, PA. Health insurance and subjective health status: data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure survey. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep;83(9):1295-9.

56 Institute of Medicine. Insuring America's health: principles and recommendations. Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Apr;11(4):418-22.

57 Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance. Care Without Coverage: Too Little, Too Late. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002.

58 McWilliams JM, Zaslavsky AM, Meara E, Ayanian JZ. Health insurance coverage and mortality among the near-elderly. 2004 Health Aff (Millwood). Jul-Aug;23(4):223-33.

59 Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance. A Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2003.

60 Freeman H, Aiken LH, Blendon RJ, Corey CR. Uninsured working-age adults: characteristics and consequences. Health Serv Res. 1990 Feb;24(6):811-23.

61 Hadley J. Sicker and Poorer: The Consequences of Being Uninsured. Paper prepared for the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute; May 2002 (updated February 2003).

62 Meyer J. Age: 2000. Census 2000 Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. October 2001. http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-12.pdf

63 Hobbs F, Stoops N. Demographic Trends in the 20th Century. Census 2000 Special Reports, CENSR-4. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; November 2002.

64 Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being 2005. Washington, DC: Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics; 2005.

65 Hoyert DL, Kung HC, Smith BL. Deaths: preliminary data for 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2005 Feb 28;53(15):1-48.

66 Leatherman S, McCarthy D. Quality of Health Care for Children and Adolescents: A Chartbook. New York, NY: Commonwealth Fund; 2004.

67 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vaccination coverage by race/ethnicity and poverty level among children aged 19-35 months – United States, 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998 Nov 13;4(44)7:956-9.

68 Lieu T, Lozano P, Finkelstein J, et al. Racial/ethnic variation in asthma status and management practices among children in managed medicaid. Pediatrics. 2002 May;109(5):857-65.

69 Bussing R, Zima BT, Gary FA, Garvan CW. Barriers to detection, help-seeking, and service use for children with ADHD symptoms. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2003 Apr-Jun;30(2):176-89.

70 Rhoades JA, Cohen JW. Health insurance status of children in America: 1996-2002. Estimates for the non-institutionalized population under age 18. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Brief #28. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; November 2003.http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/st28/stat28.pdf

71 Children's health care quality, fall 2000. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Brief #3. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; May 2002. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/st3/stat03.pdf

72 Weech-Maldonado R, Morales LS, Elliott M, et al. Race/ethnicity, language, and patients' assessments of care in Medicaid managed care. Health Serv Res. 2003 Jun;38(3):789-808.

73 Simpson L, Zodet MW, Chevarley FM, et al. Health care for children and youth in the United States: 2002 report on trends in access, utilization, quality, and expenditures. Ambul Pediatr. 2004 Mar-Apr;4(2):131-53.

74 President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Physical activity for children: Current patterns and guidelines. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest. June 2004;5(2).

75 Lethbridge-Cejku M, Schiller JS, Bernadel L. Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Stat 10. 2004 Jul;(222):1-151. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_222.pdf Accessed July 15, 2010.

76 Trends in asthma morbidity and mortality. American Lung Association; 2005. www.lungusa.org/finding-cures/our-research/trend-reports/asthma-trend-report.pdfExit Disclaimer Accessed July 7, 2010.

77 Asthma prevalence, health care use and mortality, 2002. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics; reviewed May 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/asthma/asthma.htm. Accessed July 15, 2010.

78 Akinbami LJ, Schoendorf KC. Trends in childhood asthma: prevalence, health care utilization, and mortality. Pediatrics. 2002 Aug;110(2):315-22.

79 Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Consequences of Uninsurance. Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.

80 The Importance of Primary Care Physicians as the Usual Source of Healthcare in the Achievement of Prevention Goals. One-Pager No. 4. The Robert Graham Center: Policy Studies in Family Practice and Primary Care; February 2000. http://www.graham-center.org/online/graham/home/publications/onepagers/2000/op4-prevention-goals.htmlExit Disclaimer

81 Bindman A, Grumbach K, Osmond D, et al. Primary care and receipt of preventive services. J Gen Intern Med. 1996 May;11(5):269-76.

82 Greenberg S. A Profile of Older Americans: 2003. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging; 2004.

83 Ziller EC, Coburn AF, Loux SL, et al. Health Insurance Coverage in Rural America. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured; 2003. http://www.kff.org/uninsured/index.cfmExit Disclaimer

84 Rural primary care. Ann Intern Med. 1995 Mar 1;122(5):380-90.

85 Larson S, Fleishman JA. Rural-urban differences in usual source of care and ambulatory service use: analyses of national data using Urban Influence Codes. Med Care. 2003 Jul;41(7 Suppl):III65-III74.

86 Hartley D, Quam L, Lurie N. Urban and rural differences in health insurance and access to care. J Rural Health. 1994 Spring;10(2):98-108.

87 Slifkin R, Goldsmith LJ, Ricketts TC. Race and Place: Urban-Rural Differences in Health for Racial and Ethnic Minorities. North Carolina Rural Health Research Program Working Paper No. 66. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research; 2000.

88 van Dis J. MSJAMA. Where we live: health care in rural vs urban America. JAMA. 2002 Jan 2;287(1):108.

89 Improving health care for rural populations. Research in Action. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (now Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality); 1996. www.ahrq.gov/research/rural.htm

90 Ciarlo J, Wackwitz JH, Wagenfeld MO, Mohatt DF. Focusing on "Frontier": Isolated Rural America. Letter to the field no. 2. Frontier Mental Health Services Resource Network; last revised April 11, 1996.

91 Frontier Education Center. Geography of Frontier America: The view at the turn of the Century. Santa Fe, NM: Frontier Education Center; 2000.

92 Office of Management and Budget. Revised Definitions of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, New Definitions of Micropolitan Statistical Areas and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Statistical Definitions of These Areas. OMB Bulletin No. 03-04. Washington, DC: Office of Management and Budget; 2003. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/bulletins_b03-04/. Accessed July 15, 2010.

93 Asthma statistics. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Data Fact Sheet: January 1999. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asthstat.pdf

94 Freedman VA, Martin LG, Schoeni RF. Recent trends in disability and functioning among older adults in the United States. JAMA. 2002 Dec25;288(24):3137-46.

95 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Medicare enrollment: National trends 1966-2003. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MCRAdvPartDEnrolData/ Accessed August 4, 2005.

96 Perrin J. Health services research for children with disabilities. Milbank Q. 2002;80(2):303-24.

97 Bethell C, Read D, Stein RE, et al. Identifying children with special health care needs: development and evaluation of a short screening instrument. Ambul Pediatr. 2002 Jan-Feb;2(1):38-48.

98 Mangione-Smith R, McGlynn EA. Assessing the quality of healthcare provided to children. Health Serv Res. 1998 Oct;33(4 Pt 2):1059-90.

99Chevarley FM. Utilization and expenditures for children with special health care needs. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Research Findings #24, January 2006. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/rf24/rf24.shtml. Accessed July 15, 2010.

100 Newacheck PW, Kim SE. A national profile of health care utilization and expenditures for children with special health care needs. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Jan;159(1):10-7.

101 Williams TV, Schone EM, Archibald ND, Thompson JW. A national assessment of children with special health care needs: prevalence of special needs and use of health care services among children in the military health system. Pediatrics. 2004 Aug;114(2):384-93.

102 van Dyck PC, Kogan MD, McPherson MG, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of children with special health care needs. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Sep;158(9):884-90.

103 Dey AN, Schiller JS, Tai DA. Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National Health Interview Survey, 2002. Vital Health Stat 10. 2004 Mar;(221)1-78.

104 Neff JM, Sharp VL, Muldoon J, et al. Profile of medical charges for children by health status group and severity level in a Washington State Health Plan. Health Serv Res. 2004 Feb;39(1):73-89.

105 Kuhlthau K, Perrin JM, Ettner SL, et al. High-expenditure children with Supplemental Security Income. Pediatrics 1998 Sep;102(3 Pt 1):610-5.

106 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2004 National Healthcare Disparities Report. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004.

107 Christakis DA, Feudtner C, Pihoker C, Connell FA. Continuity and quality of care for children with diabetes who are covered by Medicaid. Ambul Pediatr 2001 Mar-Apr;1(2):99-103.

108 Lozano P, Grothaus LC, Finkelstein JA, et al. Variability in asthma care and services for low-income populations among practice sites in managed Medicaid systems. Health Serv Res. 2003;38(6 Pt 1):1563-1578.

109 Chevarley FM. Access to Needed Medical Care among Children under 18 years of Age with Special Health Care Needs, 2002. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Statistical Brief #75. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2005. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/st75/stat75.pdf

110 Silver EJ, Stein RE. Access to care, unmet health needs and poverty status among children with and without chronic conditions. Ambul Pediatr. 2001 Nov-Dec;1(6):314-20.

111 Newacheck PW, Hung YY, Wright KK. Racial and ethnic disparities in access to care for children with special health care needs. Ambul Pediatr. 2002 Jul-Aug;2(4):247-54.

 

 

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