Skip Navigation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services www.hhs.gov
Agency for Healthcare Research Quality www.ahrq.gov
Archive print banner
National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2007

This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and may now be outdated. Archive material is no longer maintained, and some links may not work. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing this information should contact us at: https://info.ahrq.gov. Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your contact information.

Please go to www.ahrq.gov for current information.

Access to Care: Facilitators and Barriers to Health Care


Health Insurance Coverage
Persons under age 65 with health insurance
Persons under age 65 with public health insurance only
Persons under age 65 with any private health insurance
Persons age 65 and over with any private health insurance
People under age 65 who were uninsured all year
People under age 65 with any period of uninsurance during the year
People under age 65 with any period of public insurance during the year
Usual Source of Care
People who have a specific source of ongoing care
People in fair or poor health who have a specific source of ongoing care
People with a hospital, emergency room, or clinic as source of ongoing care
People without a usual source of care who indicate a financial or insurance reason for not having a source of care
People who have a usual primary care provider
Patient Perceptions of Need
Adults who can sometimes or never get appointments for routine care as soon as wanted
Emergency department visits in which the patient left without being seen
People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medications
People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medications due to financial or insurance reasons
People with provider who has office hours nights or weekends
People with difficulty contacting provider over the telephone
Adults without problems getting referral to a specialist in the past year
Children without problems getting referral to a specialist in the past year

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

Persons under age 65 with health insurance.

Measure Source

Healthy People 2010.

Tables

209 People under age 65 with health insurance, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

U.S. civilian population under age 65.

Numerator

Number of persons under age 65 who reported coverage by any type of public or private health insurance.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5, of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

This measure is referred to as measure 1-1 in Healthy People 2010 documentation.

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

Persons under age 65 with public health insurance only.

Measure Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Tables

210 People under age 65 with public health insurance only, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

CDC, NCHS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

U.S. civilian population under age 65.

Numerator

Number of persons under age 65 who reported coverage by public health insurance only.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5. of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

Persons under age 65 with any private health insurance.

Measure Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Tables

211 People under age 65 with any private health insurance, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

CDC, NCHS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

U.S. civilian population under age 65.

Numerator

Number of persons under age 65 who reported coverage by private health insurance only.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5, of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

Persons age 65 and over with any private health insurance.

Measure Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Tables

212 People age 65 and over with any private health insurance, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

CDC, NCHS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

U.S. civilian population age 65 and over.

Numerator

Number of persons age 65 and over who reported coverage by any private health insurance.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5, of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

People under age 65 who were uninsured all year.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Center for Health Policy Research (CHPR), California Health Interview Survey (CHIS).

National Tables

213a People under age 65 uninsured all year, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

National Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

National Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.

National Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65 who reported no private or public health insurance coverage at any time during the year.

State Tables

213b People under age 65 who were uninsured all year during the past year, California, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Asian ethnicity.

State Data Source

UCLA, CHIS.

State Denominator

California civilian population under age 65, excluding people residing in group quarters.

State Numerator

Population under age 65 who reported no private or public health insurance coverage at any time during the year.

Comments

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

People under age 65 with any period of uninsurance during the year.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

214 People under age 65 with any period of uninsurance during the year, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65 years who reported they had no public or private health insurance coverage some time during the year.

Top of Page


Health Insurance Coverage

Measure Title

People under age 65 with any period of public insurance during the year.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

215 People under age 65 with any period of public insurance during the year, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65 who reported they had public health insurance coverage some time during the past year.

Comments

Public insurance includes Medicare, Medicaid, and other public programs that provide hospital/physician coverage.

Top of Page


Usual Source of Care

Measure Title

People who have a specific source of ongoing care.

Measure Source

Healthy People 2010.

Tables

216 People who had a specific source of ongoing care, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

U.S. civilian population.

Numerator

Number of persons who reported having a specific source of primary care.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5, of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

A specific source of primary care includes urgent care/walk-in clinic, doctor's office, clinic, health center facility, hospital outpatient clinic, HMO/PPO, military or other Veterans Administration health care, or some other place. A hospital emergency room is not included as a specific source of primary care.

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

This measure is referred to as measure 1-4 in Healthy People 2010 documentation

Top of Page


Usual Source of Care

Measure Title

People in fair or poor health who have a specific source of ongoing care.

Measure Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Tables

217 People in fair or poor health who had a specific source of ongoing care, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

CDC, NCHS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

Number of persons who reported fair or poor health.

Numerator

Number of persons who reported fair or poor health and having a specific source of primary care.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5, of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

A specific source of primary care includes urgent care/walk-in clinic, doctor's office, clinic, health center facility, hospital outpatient clinic, HMO/PPO, military or other Veterans Administration health care, or some other place. A hospital emergency room is not included as a specific source of primary care.

Top of Page


Usual Source of Care

Measure Title

People with a hospital, emergency room, or clinic as source of ongoing care.

Measure Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Tables

218 People with a hospital, emergency room, or clinic as a source of ongoing care, United States, 2005, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

CDC, NCHS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

Denominator

U.S. civilian population.

Numerator

Number of persons who reported a hospital, emergency room, or clinic as source of primary care.

Comments

Data are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-adjusted rates are weighted sums of age-specific rates. For a discussion of age adjustment, see Part A, Section 5, of Tracking Healthy People 2010.

Top of Page


Usual Source of Care

Measure Title

People without a usual source of care who indicate a financial or insurance reason for not having a source of care.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

219 People without a usual source of care who indicate a financial or insurance reason for not having a source of care, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who reported having no usual source of care.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who indicated financial or insurance reasons for not having a usual source of care.

Top of Page


Usual Source of Care

Measure Title

People who have a usual primary care provider.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

220 People who have a usual primary care provider, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who were determined to have a usual primary care provider.

Comments

A person is determined to have had a primary care provider if his or her usual source of care's setting was either a physician's office or a hospital (setting other than an emergency room), and the person reported going to this usual source of care for new health problems, preventive health services, and physician referrals.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

Adults who can sometimes or never get appointments for routine care as soon as wanted.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

183a Adults who can always get appointments for routine care as soon as wanted, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

183b Adults who can usually get appointments for routine care as soon as wanted, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

183c Adults who can sometimes or never get appointments for routine care as soon as wanted, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized adults age 18 and older who report that, during the previous 12 months, they had made an appointment with a doctor or other health provider for regular or routine health care.

Numerator

Percent distribution of the denominator population who can always, usually, sometimes, or never, depending on the table, get an appointment for regular or routine health care as soon as they wanted.

Comments

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

Tables report data from the MEPS Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ). See the MEPS entry in the Data Sources Appendix for more information on the SAQ.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

Emergency department visits in which the patient left without being seen.

Measure Source

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

Table

188 Emergency department visits in which the patient left without being seen, United States, 2004-2005, by

  • Race.

Data Source

CDC, NCHS, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS).

Denominator

Patients who visited hospital emergency departments (EDs) located in the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Numerator

Patients with a Visit Disposition of "Left before being seen" on the NHAMCS Emergency Department Patient Record Form.

Comments

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medications.

Measure Source

Healthy People 2010.

Tables

221a People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medications, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

221b People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

221c People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed dental care, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

221d People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed prescription medications, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Denominator

Number of U.S. families.

Numerator

Number of U.S. families who reported having at least one member experience difficulties or delays in obtaining health care or not receive needed care.

Comments

A change in survey question format in 2002 affected the way responses were collected for this item; these rates should not be compared with data from 2001 and earlier.

Race, ethnicity, family income, and education characteristics are those of the family reference person and are used to characterize the entire family unit.

This measure is referred to as measure 1-6 in Healthy People 2010 documentation.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

People who were unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medications due to financial or insurance reasons.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

222a People unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care, dental care, or prescription medications due to financial or insurance reasons, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

222b People unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed medical care due to financial or insurance reasons, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

222c People unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed dental care due to financial or insurance reasons, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

222d People unable to receive or delayed in receiving needed prescription medications due to financial or insurance reasons, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

Number of U.S. families who reported having at least one member experience difficulties or delays in obtaining health care.

Numerator

Number of U.S. families who reported having at least one member experience difficulties or delays in obtaining health care because1) they could not afford it, 2) their insurance company would not approve/cover/pay for it, 3) their insurance company required a referral they could not get, 4) the doctor refused the family's insurance plan, or 5) it was too expensive to get to the site for care.

Comments

A change in survey question format in 2002 affected the way responses were collected for this item; these rates should not be compared with data from 2001 and earlier.

Race, ethnicity, family income, and education characteristics are those of the family reference person and are used to characterize the entire family unit.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

People with provider who has office hours nights or weekends.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

223 People with provider who has office hours nights or weekends, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who reported having a usual source of care.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who reported having a usual source of care who subsequently reported that they have a provider who has office hours nights or weekends.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

People with difficulty contacting provider over the telephone.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

224 People with difficulty contacting provider over the telephone, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who report having a usual source of care.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population who report having a usual source of care who subsequently reported that they have difficulty contacting provider over the telephone.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

Adults without problems getting referral to a specialist in the past year.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

225 Adults without problems getting referral to a specialist in past year, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.
  • Education.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized adults age 18 and older who reported that, during the previous 12 months, they or a doctor thought they needed to see a specialist.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized adults age 18 and older who reported that, during the previous 12 months, they or a doctor thought they needed to see a specialist who subsequently reported no problems getting referral to a specialist in the past year.

Comments

Tables report data from the MEPS Self-Administered Questionnaire (SAQ). See the MEPS entry in the Data Sources Appendix for more information on the SAQ.

Top of Page


Patient Perceptions of Need

Measure Title

Children without problems getting referral to a specialist in the past year.

Measure Source

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT), Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Tables

226 Children without problems getting referral to a specialist in past year, United States, 2004, by

  • Race.
  • Ethnicity.
  • Family income.

Data Source

AHRQ, CFACT, MEPS.

Denominator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized children under age 18 whose parents reported that, during the previous 12 months, they or a doctor thought they needed to see a specialist.

Numerator

U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized children under age 18 whose parents reported that, during the previous 12 months, they or a doctor thought they needed to see a specialist and who subsequently reported no problems getting referral to a specialist in the past year.

Comments

This measure and its tables are also presented in other relevant sections of the report.

Tables report data from the MEPS Child Health and Preventive Care section. See the MEPS entry in the Data Sources Appendix for more information on this component of MEPS.

Top of Page


Return to Contents
Proceed to Next Section

 

The information on this page is archived and provided for reference purposes only.

 

AHRQ Advancing Excellence in Health Care