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1 Institute of Medicine. To err is human: building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1999.
2 Zhan C, Miller MR. Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA 2003;290(14):1868-74.
3 Institute of Medicine. Patient safety: achieving a new standard of care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.
4 National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from January 1992 to June 2002, issued August 2002. Am J Infect Control 2002;30(8):458-75.
5 McDonald KM, Romano PS, Geppert J, et al. Measures of patient safety based on hospital administrative data--the patient safety indicators. Technical Review 5. Prepared by: University of California San Francisco-Stanford Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-97-0013. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003. Report No. 02-0038.
6 Hunt D, Verzier N, Abend S, et al. Fundamentals of Medicare patient safety surveillance: intent, relevance, and transparency. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; In press 2004.
7 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS): overview of the MEPS Web site. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/data/mepsweb.htm. Accessed June 8, 2004.
8 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Tracking Healthy People 2010. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000. Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/. Accessed June 8, 2004.
9 General Accounting Office. Adverse drug events: substantial problem but magnitude uncertain. Statement of Janet Heinrich. Testimony before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC; 2000 February 1. Available at: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/he00053t.pdf. Accessed June 8, 2004.
10 Zhan C, Sangl J, Bierman AS, et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly: findings from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA 2001;286(22):2823-9.