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Rocky Mountain Regional Care Model for Bioterrorist Event

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and may now be outdated. Archive material is no longer maintained, and some links may not work. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing this information should contact us at: https://info.ahrq.gov. Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your contact information.

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Appendix G: Bibliography

Defining a Region for Medical Response to Bioterrorism

Alliance for Regional Stewardship. Toward regional stewardship. Monograph Series 2000-2002. Available at: www.regionalstewardship.org/publications.html.

Ayers E. American regionalism. 1995. Available at: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/ayers_in.html.

Barbour E. A framework for collaborative regional decision-making. Public Policy Institute of California; 2001.

Dodge W. Regional Emergency preparedness compacts: safeguarding the nation's communities. Alliance for Regional Stewardship; March 2002.

Gillard E. Brief for institutional conveners. Adamastor Trust; 2001.

Join Together Online. New England group finds value in regionalism. 2002. Available at: www.jointogether.org/gv/news/features/reader/0,2061,548015,00.html.

Katz B. Regionalism deserves more Federal support. The Baltimore Sun, 1998 Feb 9. Available at: www.brook.edu/Views/Op-Ed/Katz/19980209.htm.

Lazarus E. Regionalism may affect affirmative action case. January 15, 2003. Available at: www.cnn.com.

McKinney M. Regionalism in the West: an inventory and assessment. Western Consensus Council; 2002.

Nock A. Our Enemy, the State. 1935. Available at: www.barefootsworld.net/nockoets2.html.

Pierce D. A place for regionalism. The Hudson Valley Regional Review; 1999.

U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. A self-assessment?where are you in regional collaboration and coordination. In: Regional transportation operations collaboration and coordination: a primer for working together to improve transportation safety, reliability, and security. Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. 2002. Available at: www.itsdocs.fhwa.dot.gov//JPODOCS/REPTS_TE//13686.html.

U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany. Travel and geography: regions of the United States. 2003. Available at: www.usembassy.de/usa/travel-regions.htm.

Wilson RC, editor. The New Regionalism: Essays and Commentaries. University Press of Mississippi; 1998.

Profile of Regional Medical Resource Capacity

American Hospital Association. Fast Facts on U.S. Hospitals from Hospital Statistics™. 2001. Available at: www.aha.org/aha/resource_center/fastfacts/fast_facts_US_hospitals.html.

Center for Health Workforce Studies. HRSA State Health Workforce Profiles. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions National Center for Health Workforce Information and Analysis; December 2000. Available at: http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/profiles/.

Facility Data (Excluding Physicians) FTE's Average. S. Databank Presentation; 2002.

National Association for Home Care and Hospice. Basic statistics about home care. HOMECARE Online; 2001.

National EMSC Data Analysis Resource Center. State and territory data collection—Colorado. Available at: www.nedarc.org/State_data/state_data.asp?state+Colorado.

Press TA. Homeland Security: States' bioterrorism preparedness. Intercessors for America; 2002.

United States Census Bureau. Census 2000 Urbanized Area and Urban Cluster Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2000.

Additional Resources to Meet Surge Needs

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Understanding needs for health system preparedness and capacity for bioterrorist attacks. Fact Sheet. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2002. Available at: archive.ahrq.gov/research/bioterrorism.htm.

Bentley JD. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism. Public Health Reports 2001;116 Suppl 2:36-9.

Emergency preparedness and response advisory committees. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Health; 2002. Available at: www.mass.gov/dph/bioterrorism/advisorygrps/index.htm.

Fine A, Layton M. Lessons from the West Nile viral encephalitis outbreak in New York City, 1999: implications for bioterrorism preparedness. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2001;32(2):277-82.

Fourth annual report to the President and the Congress of the advisory panel to assess domestic response capabilities for terrorism involving weapons of mass destruction. Improving health and medical capabilities. In: Implementing the national strategy. 2002. p. 51-67. Available at: http://www.rand.org/nsrd/terrpanel/terror4.pdf.

Hauer J. Letter to HI from Director of HHS/Office of Public Health Preparedness. Anderson B, Editor. Honolulu: 2002.

Henry PT, moderator. Surge capacity: is it time to move beyond 'just in time'? Summary U.S. Medicine Institute for Health Studies Forum 2002 June 17; Washington, DC: 2002. Available at: www.usminstitute.org/surge_summary.html.

Ledlow GR. Business and bioterrorism: community-based planning a priority. Central Michigan University; 2002.

Ledlow GR. Redefining homeland defense medical surge capacity. Central Michigan University.

Ozonoff D, Zaia AM. Disaster preparedness: surge capacity and the hotel industry. Occupational Health Tracker 2002;5(3).

St John RD. Some thoughts from the Center for Emergency Preparedness and Response. In: Bioterrorism and public health: preparedness and response. Health Canada; 2000. Available at: http://strategis.ic.gc.ca/epic/internet/inad-ad.nsf/vwapj/Health.ppt/$FILE/1.

The Lewin Group. Emergency department overload: a growing crisis. Presentation; 2002 April. Available at: www.hospitalconnect.com/aha/press_room-info/content/EdoCrisisSlides.pdf.

Wetter DC, Daniell WE, Treser CD. Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism [comment]. American Journal of Public Health 2001;91(5):710-6.

Measures of Preparedness

American Hospital Association. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties. Summary of an Invitational Forum; 2000 March 8-9; Chicago. Office of Emergency Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.

American Hospital Association. Model hospital mutual aid memorandum of understanding, (Adapted from District of Columbia Hospital Association) Chicago. Available at: www.ems-c.org/cfusion/ResourceDetailNew.cfm?id=1927856371.

Basoglu M. Psychological preparedness for trauma as a protective factor in survivors of torture. Psychological Medicine 1997;27:1421-33.

Center for Health Workforce Studies. HRSA State Health Workforce Profiles. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions National Center for Health Workforce Information and Analysis; 2000. Available at: http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/profiles/.

England M. Self-coherence, emotional arousal and perceived health of adult children caring for a brain-impaired parent. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1997;26(4):672-82.

Fawcett W. Oliveira CS. Casualty treatment after earthquake disasters: development of a regional simulation model. Disasters 2000;24(3):271-87.

Fraser RM. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness. In: Fisher S. editor. A planning primer for local public health agencies. Washington, DC; 2001.

Fricker R, Jacobson J, Davis LM. Measuring and evaluating local preparedness for a chemical or biological terrorist attack. RAND; 2002. Available at: www.rand.org/publications/IP/IP217/.

Institute of Medicine. Preparedness indicators. In: Manning FJ, Goldfrank L, editors. Tools for evaluating the metropolitan medical response system program Phase 1 report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001. p. 19-51.

Institute of Medicine. Preparedness indicators for metropolitan medical response system program contract deliverables. In: Manning FJ, Goldfrank L, editors. Preparing for terrorism: tools for evaluating the metropolitan medical response system program. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences; 2002. p. 219-51.

Kaufmann AF, Meltzer MI, Schmid GP. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack: are prevention and post attack intervention programs justifiable? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1997;3(2):83-94.

Ledlow GR. Homeland Defense Medical Surge Capacity. Central Michigan University.

Ledlow GR, Mark A, Cwiek M, Johnson JA. Business and bioterrorism: community-based planning a priority. Central Michigan University; 2002. Available at: www.denverhealth.org/bioterror/Document/Business%20and%20Bioterrorism%20with%20Model.doc.

Manning FJ, Goldfrank L, editors. Preparing for terrorism: tools for evaluating the metropolitan medical response system program. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002. Available at: www.iom.edu/report.asp?id=4449.

Manning FJ, Goldfrank L, editors. Tools for evaluating the metropolitan medical response system program Phase 1 report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001. Available at: www.nap.edu/openbook/0309076471/html/.

Metropolitan Area Hospital Compact. 2002. p. 1-7.

Mushlin A. Integrated Delivery Systems and Clinical Preparedness for Bioterrorist Events. Agency for Healthcare Research, Quality Integrated Delivery System Research Network. AHRQ contract 290-00-0013. 2002.

Norris FH. Frequency and structure of precautionary behavior in the domains of hazard preparedness, crime prevention, vehicular safety, and health maintenance. Health Psychology 1997;16(6):566-75.

Okene J. Provider training for patient-centered alcohol counseling in a primary care setting. Archives of Internal Medicine 1997; 157(20):2334-41.

O'Toole T, Mair M, Inglesby TV. Shining light on "Dark Winter". Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;34(7):972-83.

Rosenberg MW, Moore EG. The health of Canada's elderly population: current status and future implications [comment]. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1997;157(8):1025-32.

Snyder M. Teaching secondary students with learning disabilities to self-manage classroom survival skills. Journal of Learning Disabilities 1997;30(5):534-43.

Whiteside C. Identifying the need for curriculum change. Canadian Family Physician 1997. 43:1390-94.

Staffing and Resources

American Hospital Association. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties. Summary of an invitational forum; 2000 March 8-9; Chicago. Office of Emergency Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.

American Hospital Association. Model hospital mutual aid memorandum of understanding, (Adapted from District of Columbia Hospital Association) Chicago. Available at: www.ems-c.org/cfusion/ResourceDetailNew.cfm?id=1927856371.

Balch DC, West VL. Telemedicine used in a simulated disaster response. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics 2001;81:41-5.

Bissell RA, Becker BM, Burkle FM, Jr. Health care personnel in disaster response. Reversible roles or territorial imperatives? Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 1996;14(2):267-88.

Briggs SM, Schnitzer J. The World Trade Center terrorist attack: changing priorities for surgeons in disaster response. Surgery 2002;132(3):506-12.

Center for Health Workforce Studies. HRSA State health workforce profiles. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration, Bureau of Health Professions National Center for Health Workforce Information and Analysis; December 2000. Available at: http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce/reports/profiles/.

Cruz-Vega F, Sun C, Brink B, Bugslag R, González Del Castillo B, Hastings P et al. 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine. Theme 6: Multidisciplinary team interaction: Summary and action plan. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 2001;16(1):39-41.

Duchin JM. Bioterrorism. WebMD; 2003. Available at: www.webmd.com.

Fraser RM. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness. In: Fisher S. editor. A planning primer for local public health agencies. Washington, DC; 2001.

Guay AH. Dentistry's response to bioterrorism: a report of a consensus workshop. Journal of the American Dental Association 2002;133(9):1181-7.

Hightower R. Georgia Homeland Security First Responder Initiatives?—Georgia Association of Fire Chiefs, State of Georgia Department of Public Safety Homeland Security. 2002.

Lichterman JD. A "community as resource" strategy for disaster response. Public Health Reports 2000;115(2-3):262-5.

Metropolitan Area Hospital Compact. 2002. p. 1-7.

Mushlin A. Integrated delivery systems and clinical preparedness for bioterrorist events. Agency for Healthcare Research, Quality Integrated Delivery System Research Network AHRQ contract 290-00-0013. 2002.

Nocera A. Prior planning to avoid responders becoming "victims" during disasters. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 2000;15(1):46-8.

Orr ML. Ready or not, disasters happen. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing 2002;7(3):3.

Ozonoff D, Zaia, AM. Disaster preparedness: surge capacity and the hotel industry. Occupational Health Tracker, 2002;5(3).

Richards CF, Burstein JL, Waeckerle JF, Hutson HR. Emergency physicians and biological terrorism. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1999;34(2):183-90.

Weil J, Paul T. Weill Cornell computer simulation model helps remedy possible national gap in bioterrorism preparedness. Cornell University; 2002. Available at: www.med.cornell.edu/news/press/2002/11_25_02.html

Weill Medical College. National guidelines for mass prophylaxis using Points of Dispensing/Vaccination (PODS). New York Department of Public Health; 2003.

Infrastructure

American Hospital Association. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties. Summary of an invitational forum; 2000 March 8-9; Chicago. Office of Emergency Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.

American Hospital Association. Model hospital mutual aid memorandum of understanding, (Adapted from District of Columbia Hospital Association) Chicago. Available at: www.ems-c.org/cfusion/ResourceDetailNew.cfm?id=1927856371.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biologic, or radiologic attacks. JAMA 2002;288(21):2680-1.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Guidance for protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2002-139. Cincinnati, OH. NIOSH Publications Dissemination; May 2002.

Fraser RM. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness. In: Fisher S, editor. A planning primer for local public health agencies. Washington, DC: 2001.

Metropolitan Area Hospital Compact. 2002. p. 1-7.

Ozonoff D, Zaia AM. Disaster preparedness: surge capacity and the hotel industry. Occupational Health Tracker 2002;5(3).

Roll F. Safe keeping: some real-world advice on conducting a security assessment. Health Facilities Management 2001;Nov;14(11):24-7.

Isolation/Quarantine

American Hospital Association. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties. Summary of an invitational forum; 2000 March 8-9; Chicago. Office of Emergency Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.

American Hospital Association. Model hospital mutual aid memorandum of understanding, (Adapted from District of Columbia Hospital Association) Chicago. Available at: www.ems-c.org/cfusion/ResourceDetailNew.cfm?id=1927856371.

Barbera J, Macintyre A, Gostin L, Inglesby T, O'Toole T, DeAtley C, et al. Large-scale quarantine following biological terrorism in the United States: scientific examination, logistic and legal limits, and possible consequences. JAMA 2001;286(21):2711-7.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Guidance for filtration and air-cleaning systems to protect building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks. DHHS (NIOSH) Pub No. 2003-136. Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH Publications Dissemination; April 2003.

Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E. Tularemia as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. [Consensus Statement]. JAMA 2001;285(21):2763-73.

Fraser RM. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness. In: Fisher S, editor. A planning primer for local public health agencies. Washington, DC; 2001.

Garner JS. Guideline for Infection Control Practices in Hospitals. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1996;17:53-80.

Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eistzen E, Jahrling PB. Smallpox as a Biological Weapon: Medical and public health management. [Consensus Statement]. JAMA 1999;281(22):2127-37.

Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E. Plague as a biological weapon: Medical and public health management. [consensus statement]. JAMA 2000;283(17):2282-90.

Inglesby TV, O'Toole T, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: Updated recommendations for Management. [consensus statement]. JAMA 2002;287(17):2236-52.

Kristof N. Lock 'Em Up. New York Times. May 2, 2003. Available at: www.nytimes.com.

Metropolitan Area Hospital Compact. 2002. p. 1-7.

Van Nostrand L. Hospital preparedness: surge capacity and ER isolation rooms. Presentation. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public Health Emergency Preparedness. Secretary's Council on Public Health Preparedness; August 26-27, 2002.

Risk Communication, Transportation and Coordination

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Researchers examine the role of informatics in responding to bioterrorism, mass disasters, and war. Research Activities No. 264. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; August 2002. Available at: www.ahrq.gov/research/aug02/0802ra31.htm.

American Hospital Association. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties. Summary of an invitational forum; 2000 March 8-9; Chicago. Office of Emergency Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.

American Hospital Association. Model hospital mutual aid memorandum of understanding, (Adapted from District of Columbia Hospital Association) Chicago. Available at: www.ems-c.org/cfusion/ResourceDetailNew.cfm?id=1927856371.

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials. Phone lines and life lines: how New York reestablished contact on September 11, 2001. Washington, DC: ASTHO; 2002. p. 1-12.

Bowenkamp C. CoordiNation of mental health and community agencies in disaster response. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health 2000;2(3):159-65.

Bravata D McDonald K, Owens D, Buckeridge D, Haberland C, Rydzak C, et al. Bioterrorism preparedness and response: use of information technologies and decision support systems. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 59 (Prepared by University of California San Francisco-Stanford Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-97-0013). AHRQ Publication No. 02-E028. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 2002.

De Grace M, Ericson D, Folz H, Greene W, Ho K, Pearce L. Proceedings for the 5th Asia-Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine: creating an agenda for action. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 2001;16(1):18-21.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Are you ready: a guide to citizen preparedness. Washington DC: FEMA; 2002. Available at: www.fema.gov/areyouready/.

Fraser R.M, Fisher VS. Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: planning primer for local public health agencies. Washington, DC: National Association of County and City Health Officials; 2001.

Garshnek V, Burkle FM Jr. Telecommunications systems in support of disaster medicine: applications of basic information pathways. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1999;34(2):213-8.

Geiling JA. Overview of command and control issues: setting the stage. Military Medicine 2002;167(9 Suppl):3-5.

Gray GM, Ropeik DP, Dealing with the dangers of fear: the role of risk communication. Health Affairs 2002;21(6):106-16.

Holloway HC, Norwood AE, Fullerton CS, Engel CC Jr, Ursano RJ. The threat of biological weapons. Prophylaxis and mitigation of psychological and social consequences. JAMA 1997;278(5):425-7.

Institute of Medicine. Evaluation of the metropolitan medical response system program to enhance local capability to respond to terrorism with weapons of mass destruction. Washington, DC: The National Academies; 2002. Available at: www.iom.edu/project.asp?id=12188.

Lichterman JD. A "community as resource" strategy for disaster response. Public Health Reports 2000;115(2-3):262-5.

Metropolitan Area Hospital Compact. 2002. p. 1-7.

Millar D. A crisis communication primer for hospital CEOs. Washington, DC: American Hospital Association. 2003

Ozonoff D, Zaia, AM. Disaster Preparedness: surge capacity and the hotel industry. Occupational Health Tracker 2002;5(3).

RMD Systems, Inc. Networking the business of health care. Presentation to Denver Health Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center. RMD Systems, Inc.; 2003.

Sacra JC, Murphy M. Oklahoma City and Tulsa metropolitan medical response system. Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association 2002;95(4):281-5.

Simpson DM. Non-institutional sources of assistance following a disaster: potential triage and treatment capabilities of neighborhood-based preparedness organizations. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 2000;15(4):199-206.

Store AO. Crisis communications in health care: managing difficult times effectively. Washington, DC: American Hospital Association; 2002.

Tanaka H, Iwai A, Oda J, Kuwagata Y, Matsuoka T, Shimazu T et al. Overview of evacuation and transport of patients following the 1995 Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. Journal of Emergency Medicine 1998;16(3):439-44.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Communicating in a crisis: risk communication guidelines for public officials. Washington, DC: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2002. Available at: www.riskcommunication.samhsa.gov/index.htm

Vulnerable/Rural Populations

D'Amore J, Hung O, Chiang W, Goldfrank L. The epidemiology of the homeless population and its impact on an urban emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001; 8(11):1051-5.

Fields WW, Asplin BR, Larkin GL, Marco CA, Johnson LA, Yeh C et al. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act as a federal health care safety net program. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1064-9.

Glauser J. Rationing and the role of the emergency department as society's safety net. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1101-6.

Gordon JA, Billings J, Asplin BR, Rhodes KV. Safety net research in emergency medicine: proceedings of the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference on "The Unraveling Safety Net." Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1024-9.

Gordon JA, Dupuie TA. Child health insurance outreach through the emergency department: a pilot study. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1088-90.

Kelen GD, Scheulen JJ, Hill PM. Effect of an emergency department (ED) managed acute care unit on ED overcrowding and emergency medical services diversion. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1095-100.

Litvak E, Long MC, Cooper AB, McManus ML. Emergency department diversion: causes and solutions. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1108-10.

Pollock DA. Barriers to health care access: what counts and who's counting? Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1016-8.

Reeder TJ, Garrison HG. When the safety net is unsafe: real-time assessment of the overcrowded emergency department. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1070-4.

Richardson LD, Hwang U. Access to care: a review of the emergency medicine literature. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1030-6.

Schneider S, Zwemer F, Doniger A, Dick R, Czapranski T, Davis E. Rochester, New York: a decade of emergency department overcrowding. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1022-3.

Schull MJ, Szalai JP, Schwartz B, Redelmeier DA. Emergency department overcrowding following systematic hospital restructuring: trends at twenty hospitals over ten years. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1037-43.

Taylor TB. Emergency services crisis of 2000?—the Arizona experience. Academic Emergency Medicine 2001;8(11):1107-8.

Example of a Regional Exercise (Plans, Orders and Exercises)

Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic plan for preparedness and response. Recommendations of the CDC Strategic Planning Workgroup. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 2000 Apr 21;49(RR-4):1-14.

Bonta D. California Hospital bioterrorism response planning guide. California Department of Health Services; 2002. Available at: www.dhs.ca.gov/ps/ddwem/environmental/epo/PDF/ca_hosp_guide.pdf.

Buchanan DF, Freeman C. Statewide disaster medical standards development project. Final Report 2000. California EMS Authority, Mountain Valley EMS Agency; August 21, 2000. Available at: www.mvemsa.com/Disaster/DMS%20Grant%20Proj/Final%20DMS%20Report.htm.

Cantrill SM. Mile high disaster drill. Presentation to the 29th Annual Rocky Mountain Trauma & Emergency Medicine Conference. Denver; 2002.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act. Washington DC: Center for Law and the Public's Health; 2001. p. 1-39. Available at: www.publichealthlaw.net/MSEHPA/MSEHPA2.pdf

Hoffman RE, Norton JE. Lessons learned from a full-scale bioterrorism exercise. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2000;6(6):652-3.

Koons R. Bioterrorism hospital preparedness program implementation plan. State of Colorado. p. 1-50.

Koscheyev VS, Leon GR, Greaves IA. Lessons learned and unsolved public health problems after large-scale disasters [comment]. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 1997;12(2):120-31.

Office of Workforce Development. Bioterrorism preparedness and response. A national public health training plan. 2000. O'Toole T, Mair M, Inglesby TV. Shining light on "Dark Winter". Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;34(7):972-83.

Owens B. Executive Order 0.0 Declaring a State of Emergency due to Criminal Acts of Biological Terrorism. Denver: State of Colorado; 2002.

TOPOFF Exercise Planning Conference. Department of Justice and the Federal Emergency Management Agency; 1999 May 20-21; Chantilly, VA.

Santa Clara Public Health Department. Santa Clara County operational area disaster medical health plan. San Jose, CA: Santa Clara Valley Health and Hospital System; 1999. p. 187.

U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. Acute care center: a mass casualty care strategy for biological terrorism incidents. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: SBCCOM Biological Weapons Improved Response Program; Dec. 1, 2001.

Department of Defense

Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). Department of Defense Chemical and Biological Defense Program: Annual Report to Congress and Performance Plan. Report no. A809793. Washington DC: Department of Defense; 2001.

Caudle L. The Biological Warfare Threat. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, editors. Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Part I. The Textbook of Military Medicine. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute; 1997. p. 451-466

Department of the Army. Handbook on the medical aspects of NBC defensive operations. Washington DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army; 2003.

Department of the Army. Health service support in a nuclear, biological, and chemical environment. Washington DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army; 2002.

Department of Defense. Interim Planning Guide. Nunn-Lugar-Domenici-Domestic Preparedness Program. 2000.

Department of the Army. Military Operations: Medical Emergency Management Planning. Ft. Sam Houston TX: Headquarters, United States Army Medical Command; 2002. Available at: www.cs.amedd.army.mil/medcomplans/pdfs/P525-1.pdf.

Franz D, Parrott CD. The U.S. biological warfare and biological defense programs. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, editors. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare, Part I. The textbook of military medicine. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute; 1997. p. 425-36.

Headquarters Departments of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force and Commandant, Marine Corps. Treatment of Biological Warfare Agent Casualties. Washington DC; 2000. Available at: http://www.vnh.org/FM8284/.

Kussman R. Report of the biological weapon improved response program to the U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. Bel Air, MD: Battelle Edgeware Operations; 2001.

Modular Emergency Medical System: Concept of operations for the Neighborhood Emergency Help Center (NEHC). In: Mass casualty care strategy for a biological terrorism incident. Nunn-Lugar-Domenici-Domestic Preparedness Program; 2002. p. 2-5.

Sidell F, Franz, DR. Overview: defense against the effects of chemical and biological warfare agents. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, editors. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare, Part I. The textbook of military medicine. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute; 1997. p. 1-7.

Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, editors. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare, Part I. The textbook of military medicine. Washington DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute; 1997.

Skidmore S, Wall WT, Church JK. Modular emergency medical system. Concept of operations for the acute care center. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: SBCCOM Biological Weapons Improved Response Program; May 2003. Available at: hld.sbccom.army.mil/ip/reports.htm.

Skidmore S, Wall W, Church J. Modular emergency medical system. Department of Defense; 2002.

Takafuji E. Medical challenges in chemical and biological defense for the 21st century. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, editors. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare, Part I. The textbook of military medicine. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Borden Institute; 1997. p. 677-85.

U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. Acute care center: a mass casualty care strategy for biological terrorism incidents. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: SBCCOM Biological Weapons Improved Response Program; Dec. 1, 2001.

U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. Community outreach/mass prophylaxis pamphlet: a mass casualty care strategy for biological terrorism incidents. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: SBCCOM Biological Weapons Improved Response Program; 2002 June. Available at: hld.sbccom.army.mil/ip/reports.htm.

U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. Neighborhood emergency help center pamphlet: a mass casualty care strategy for biological terrorism incidents. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: SBCCOM Biological Weapons Improved Response Program; 2001 May. Available at: hld.sbccom.army.mil/ip/reports.htm.

U.S. Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Medical management of biological casualties handbook. Fort Detrick, Frederick MD: U.S. Army; 2001.

Roles Federal, State, and Local

Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction (U.S.). Annual report to the President and the Congress of the advisory panel to assess domestic response capabilities for terrorism involving weapons of mass destruction. Washington, D.C.: RAND; 1999. p. 123.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Establishing effective system linkages for bioterrorism: Medical care, public health, and emergency preparedness. Principal investigator Jerry Hauer, M.H.S., Science Applications International, George Washington University, Johns Hopkins University, and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 2002.

Baker DJ. The pre-hospital management of injury following mass toxic release: comparison of military and civil approaches. Resuscitation; 1999. 42(2):155-9.

Beauchesne A. State's homeland security priorities. NGA Center for Best Practices; 2002.

Butler JC, Cohen ML, Friedman CR, Scripp RM, Watz CG. Collaboration between public health and law enforcement: new paradigms and partnerships for bioterrorism planning and response. Emerging Infectious Diseases [serial online] 2002 Oct :8. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol8no10/02-0400.htm.

Centers for Disease for Control and Prevention. Interim recommended notification procedures for local and state public health department leaders in the event of a bioterrorist incident. MMWR 2002 Sep 6;51(35):786-9.

Cilluffo J. Combating chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorism: a comprehensive strategy. Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies; 2000.

Code of Colorado Regulations 1009-05. Rules and regulations pertaining to preparations for a bioterrorist event, pandemic influenza, or an outbreak by a novel and highly fatal infectious agent or biological toxin. Available at: www.cdphe.state.co.us/op/regs/dceedregs.asp

Cole TB. When a bioweapon strikes, who will be in charge? JAMA 2000;284(8):944.

Crouch BI. Role of poison control centers in disaster response planning. America Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2002;59(12):1159-63.

Defendimus CS. Overview of Homeland Defense Program. 2002.

Eiseman B. Combat casualty management for tomorrow's battlefield: urban terrorism. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care 2001;51(5):821-3.

Flaherty T. Report of the Board of Trustees. 2001, AMA House of Delegates.

Gerberding JL, Hughes JM, Koplan JP. Bioterrorism preparedness and response: clinicians and public health agencies as essential partners [comment]. JAMA 2002;287(7):898-900.

Henderson DA. The science of bioterrorism: HHS Preparedness. Testimony before the Committee on Science, United States House of Representatives 2001 Dec 5. Available at: www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011205.html.

Hoffman ER. Preparing for a bioterrorist attack: legal and administrative strategies. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2003;9(2):241-244.

Kuhr S, Hauer JM. Intergovernmental preparedness and response to potential catastrophic biological terrorism. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice 2000;6(4):50-6.

National Domestic Preparedness Office. Blueprint for the National Domestic Preparedness Office. Washington DC: National Domestic Preparedness Office; 2001.

New York City Fire Department. McKinsey Report?—Increasing FDNY's preparedness. 2003. Available at: www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/html/mck_report/toc.html.

O'Toole T. Congressional testimony in hearing on FEMA'S role in managing bioterrorist attacks and the impact of public health concerns on bioterrorism preparedness. Congress of the United States, U.S. Senate Government Affairs Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services. 2001 July 23.

Richards CF, Burstein JL, Waeckerle JF, Hutson HR. Emergency physicians and biological terrorism. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1999;34(2):183-90.

Spencer R. Statement to the U.S. Congressional House Subcommittee on Government Efficiency. Financial management and intergovernmental relations field hearing to examine how the Federal government is assisting State and local governments for a potential terrorist attack. Department of Emergency Management. 2002.

Tucker JB. National health and medical services response to incidents of chemical and biological terrorism. JAMA 1997; 278(5):362-8.

Turnock BJ., Atchison C. Governmental public health in the United States: the implications of federalism. Health Affairs 2002;21(6):68-78.

U.S. Government Accounting Office. Combating terrorism: Federal response teams provide varied capabilities; opportunities remain to improve coordination. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accounting Office; 2000 Nov. Available at: www.gao.gov/new.items/d0114.pdf.

Emergency Management

Benson M, Koenig KL, Schultz CH. Disaster triage: START, then SAVE? a new method of dynamic triage for victims of a catastrophic earthquake. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 1996;11(2):117-24.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Federal Response Plan: Basic Plan.Washington DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; 1999.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. Figure 1: National Disaster Response Framework. In: Federal Response Plan: Interim. Washington, DC: Federal Emergency Management Agency; 2003. p. 3.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Emergency Management Standards-EC.1.4 and EC.2.9.1. Joint Commission Resources: 2002. Available at: www.jcrinc.com/subscribers/perspectives.asp?durki=2914&site=10&return=2897.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Mobilizing America's health care reservoir. Joint Commission Perspectives 2001;21(12):1-24.

Jones R. Critical incident protocol. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University; 2000. p. 1-41.

Stratton SJ, Hastings VP, Isbell D, Celentano J, Ascarrunz M, Gunter CS et al. The 1994 Northridge earthquake disaster response: the local emergency medical services agency experience. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 1996. 11(3):172-9.

Hospital Plans

Agan B, Dolan M. Hospital-focused response to biological weapons and toxins: a short course, in Course Notes. Denver; 2002.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Understanding needs for health system preparedness and capacity for bioterrorist attacks. Fact Sheet. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2002. Available at: www.ahrq.gov/about/cpcr/bioterrorism.htm.

American Hospital Association. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties. Summary of an invitational forum; 2000 March 8-9; Chicago. Office of Emergency Preparedness, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.

American Hospital Association. Hospital readiness, response, and recovery resources. 2003. Available at: www.hospitalconnect.com/aha.key_issues/disaster_readiness/resources.

Bentley JD. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism. Public Health Reports 2001;116 Suppl 2:36-9.

Catlett C, Perl T, Jenckes M, Karen A, Robinson K, Mitchell D et al. Training of clinicians for public health events relevant to bioterrorism preparedness. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 51 (Prepared by Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-97-006). AHRQ Pub. No. 02-E011. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. January 2002.

English JF. Overview of bioterrorism readiness plan: a template for health care facilities. American Journal of Infection Control 1999;27(6):468-9.

Health Resources and Services Administration. Bioterrorism hospital preparedness program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2002. Available at: www.hrsa.gov/bioterrorism/.

Hill Country Memorial Health System. Bioterrorism response plan. 2001.

Hospital Emergency Incident Command System. About the HEICS III project.San Mateo County Emergency Medical Services Agency, California Emergency Medical Services Authority; 1998.

Milsten A. Hospital responses to acute-onset disasters: a review. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 2000;15(1):32-45.

Okumura T, Suzuki K, Fukuda A, Kohama A, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S et al. The Tokyo subway sarin attack: disaster management, Part 2: Hospital response. Academic Emergency Medicine 1998;5(6):618-24.

Oster NS. Disaster medicine. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 1997;64(4-5):323-8.

Richter P. Hospital disaster preparedness: meeting a requirement or preparing for the worst. The American Society for Healthcare Engineering; 2003.

Rodning CB. Disaster preparedness. Southern Medical Journal 1983;76(2):229-31.

Special report. The Oklahoma City bombing: mass casualties and the local hospital response. Hospital Security & Safety Management 1995;16(5):5-10.

Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services. Hospital Disaster Plan. Department of Health and Family Services; 2002.

General Bioterrorism

Cantrill SM. Weapons of mass effect: bio weapons. Presentation to the 29th Annual Rocky Mountain Trauma and Emergency Medicine Conference. Denver; 2002.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Biological and chemical terrorism: strategic planning preparedness and response. MMWR 2000;49(RR04):1-4.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Characteristics of selected bioterrorism agents. In: Bacterial agents. 2002.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidance for Fiscal Year 2002 Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. (Announcement no. 99051?Emergency Supplemental) 2002 Feb 15.

Croughan M, Handley M. Final Progress Report: Bioterrorism surveillance in the UCSF/Stanford Collaborative Research Network. 2000.

Departments of the Army, Navy, and the Air Force. NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations. Washington DC; 1996. Available at: www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/dod/fm8-9/toc.htm.

Heinrich J. Bioterrorism: public health and medical preparedness. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives. Washington DC: United States General Accounting Office: 2001 Oct 10. p. 1-25.

Inglesby TV, Henderson DA, Bartlett JG, Ascher MS, Eitzen E, Friedlander AM et al. Anthrax as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. Working Group on Civilian Biodefense [comment] [erratum appears in JAMA 2000 Apr 19;283(15):1963]. JAMA 1999. 281(18):1735-45.

Inglesby TV, O'Toole T, Henderson DA, Preventing the use of biological weapons: improving response should prevention fail. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2000;30(6):926-9.

Lane HC, Fauci AS, Bioterrorism on the home front: a new challenge for American medicine.[comment]. JAMA 2001;286(20):2595-7.

Lane HC, Montagne JL, Fauci AS, Bioterrorism: a clear and present danger [erratum appears in Nature Medicine 2002;8(1):87]. Nature Medicine 2001. 7(12):1271-3.

National Center for Infectious Diseases (U.S.). National bioterrorism preparedness and response initiative: overview and general information about the initiative. Atlanta, GA: The Center; 2000.

Shalala DE. Bioterrorism: how prepared are we? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999;5(4):492-3.

Sharp TW, Brennan RJ, Keim M, Williams RJ, Eitzen E, Lillibridge S. Medical preparedness for a terrorist incident involving chemical or biological agents during the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1998;32(2):214-23.

Simon JD. Biological terrorism. Preparing to meet the threat. JAMA 1997;278(5):428-30.

Vastag B. Bioterrorism threat calls for revisiting research protections. JAMA 2002;287(20):2639.

Waeckerle JF. Domestic preparedness for events involving weapons of mass destruction.[comment]. JAMA 2000;283(2):252-4.

Wenc C. In the air tonight: Seattle's (un)readiness for mass bioterrorism. 2001. Available at: www.thestranger.com/2001-10-25/hallo2.html.

Wetterhall SF, Coulombier DM, Herndon JM, Zaza S, Cantwell JD. Medical care delivery at the 1996 Olympic Games. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Olympics Surveillance Unit. JAMA 1998;279(18):1463-8.

Young F. A review of Federal bioterrorism preparedness programs from a public health perspective. Committee Hearing. The Committee on Energy and Commerce. October 2001.

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