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Community-Based Mass Prophylaxis

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

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1. Jernigan J, Stephens D, Ashford D, et al. Bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax: the first 10 cases reported in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 2001 Nov-Dec;7(6):933-44.

2. WHO. Situation Updates—Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Available at: Accessed March 31, 2003.

3. Webby RJ, Webster RG. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science Nov 28 2003;302(5650):1519-22.

4. A Governor's Guide to Emergency Management: Volume 2—Homeland Security. Washington, D.C.: National Governor's Association; 2002.

5. Receiving, Distributing, and Dispensing the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile: A Guide for Planners. Version 9. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); April 2002.

6. Darling RG, Catlett CL, Huebner KD, Jarrett DG. Threats in bioterrorism. I: CDC category A agents. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2002;20(2):273-309.

7. Meyer DV, Smith LE, Ahlquist A, Bray DA, Miller JM. Laboratory Response Network—Web-based Help Desk, Proficiency Testing, and Reporting. Proc AMIA Symp 2003:933.

8. Mothershead JL, Tonat K, Koenig KL. Bioterrorism preparedness. III: State and federal programs and response. Emerg Med Clin North Am May 2002;20(2):477-500.

9. O'Toole T, Inglesby TV. Epidemic response scenario: decision making in a time of plague. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):92-103.

10. Perkins BA, Popovic T, Yeskey K. Public health in the time of bioterrorism. Emerg Infect Dis Oct 2002;8(10):1015-8.

11. Morse A. Bioterrorism preparedness for local health departments. J Community Health Nurs Winter 2002;19(4):203-11.

12. Yetman RJ, Parks D, Taft E. Management of patients exposed to biologic weapons. J Pediatr Health Care 2002;16(5):256-61.

13. Godley J. Bioterror emergency readiness: a local responsibility. Manag Care Nov 2003;12(11 Suppl):13-5.

14. Thomson D. Mass immunization in the control of infectious disease. British Medical Journal 1966;5511:427-33.

15. WHO. Public Health Response to Biological and Chemical Weapons. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001.

16. Syndromic surveillance for bioterrorism following the attacks on the World Trade Center—New York City, 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51 Spec No:13-5.

17. Buehler JW, Berkelman RL, Hartley DM, Peters CJ. Syndromic surveillance and bioterrorism-related epidemics. Emerg Infect Dis Oct 2003;9(10):1197-204.

18. Irvin CB, Nouhan PP, Rice K. Syndromic analysis of computerized emergency department patients' chief complaints: an opportunity for bioterrorism and influenza surveillance. Ann Emerg Med Apr 2003;41(4):447-52.

19. Mostashari F, Fine A, Das D, Adams J, Layton M. Use of ambulance dispatch data as an early warning system for community-wide influenza-like illness, New York City. J Urban Health Jun 2003;80(2 Suppl 1):i43-9.

20. Bravata DM, Owens DK, Buckeridge DL, et al. Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response: Use of Information Technologies and Decision Support Systems: AHRQ Publication No. 02-E028. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; June 2002.

21. Danzig R. Catastrophic bioterrorism: what is to be done? Washington, DC: Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University; August, 2003.

22. Sox G, Maxymiv K. Exercising the Strategic National Stockpile: Lessons Learned and Tools for Application. Washington, DC: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO); 2004.

23. Bentley JD. Hospital preparedness for bioterrorism. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):36-9.

24. Wetter DC, Daniell WE, Treser CD. Hospital preparedness for victims of chemical or biological terrorism. Am J Public Health 2001;91(5):710-6.

25. Henning KJ, Brennan PJ, Hoegg C, O'Rourke E, Dyer BD, Grace TL. Health system preparedness for bioterrorism: bringing the tabletop to the hospital. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol Feb 2004;25(2):146-55.

26. Taylor CW. Surge capacity: preparing your healthcare system. Emerg Med Serv Aug 2003;32(8):91-2.

27. Shapiro DS. Surge capacity for response to bioterrorism in hospital clinical microbiology laboratories. J Clin Microbiol Dec 2003;41(12):5372-6.

28. Hupert N, Mushlin AI, Callahan MA. Modeling the public health response to bioterrorism: using discrete event simulation to design antibiotic distribution centers. Med Decis Making Sep-Oct 2002;22(5 Suppl):S17-25.

29. Hupert N, Bearman GM, Mushlin AI, Callahan MA. Accuracy of screening for inhalational anthrax after a bioterrorist attack. Ann Intern Med Sep 2 2003;139(5 Pt 1):337-45.

30. Follow-up of deaths among U.S. Postal Service workers potentially exposed to Bacillus anthracis—District of Columbia, 2001-2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Oct 3 2003;52(39):937-8.

31. Navas E. Problems associated with potential massive use of antimicrobial agents as prophylaxis or therapy of a bioterrorist attack. Clin Microbiol Infect Aug 2002;8(8):534-9.

32. Shepard CW, Soriano-Gabarro M, Zell ER, et al. Antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis for anthrax: adverse events and adherence. Emerg Infect Dis Oct 2002;8(10):1124-32.

33. Tierney BC, Martin SW, Franzke LH, et al. Serious adverse events among participants in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Anthrax Vaccine and Antimicrobial Availability Program for persons at risk for bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax. Clin Infect Dis Oct 1 2003;37(7):905-11.

34. Inglesby TV, O'Toole T, Henderson DA. Preventing the use of biological weapons: improving response should prevention fail. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30(6):926-9.

35. Barbera JA, Macintyre AG. The reality of the modern bioterrorism response. Lancet 2002;360(Suppl):s33-4.

36. Franz DR, Zajtchuk R. Biological terrorism: understanding the threat, preparation, and medical response. Disease-A-Month 2002;48(8):493-564.

37. Bell DM, Kozarsky PE, Stephens DS. Clinical issues in the prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment of anthrax. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8(2):222-5.

38. Layton M. Bioterrorism preparedness checklist—local public health agency perspective. Paper presented at: WHO Meeting on Informal Discussions on Strengthening National Preparedness and Response to Biological Weapons, Rome 2002. URL: Accessed April 2, 2004

39. Binder P, Attre O, Boutin JP, et al. Medical management of biological warfare and bioterrorism: place of the immunoprevention and the immunotherapy. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Oct 2003;26(5-6):401-21.

40. Blank S, Moskin LC, Zucker JR. An ounce of prevention is a ton of work: mass antibiotic prophylaxis for anthrax, New York City, 2001. Emerg Infect Dis Jun 2003;9(6):615-22.

41. Esbitt D. The Strategic National Stockpile: roles and responsibilities of health care professionals for receiving the stockpile assets. Disaster Manag Response Jul-Sep 2003;1(3):68-70.

42. Martin G. Anthrax: lessons learned from the U.S. Capitol experience. Mil Med Sep 2003;168(9 Suppl):9-14.

43. Partridge R, Alexander J, Lawrence T, Suner S. Medical counterbioterrorism: the response to provide anthrax prophylaxis to New York City US Postal Service employees. Ann Emerg Med Apr 2003;41(4):441-6.

44. Inglesby TV, Grossman R, O'Toole T. A plague on your city: observations from TOPOFF. Clin Infect Dis 2001;32(3):436-45.

45. U.S. Postal Service may deliver medicine in the event of a catastrophic incident. U.S. Postal Service [February 18 2004 Press Release]. Available at: Accessed April 2, 2004.

46. Butler JC, Cohen ML, Friedman CR, Scripp RM, Watz CG. Collaboration between public health and law enforcement: new paradigms and partnerships for bioterrorism planning and response. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8(10):1152-6.

47. Reich DS. Modernizing local responses to public health emergencies: bioterrorism, epidemics, and the model state emergency health powers act. J Contemp Health Law Policy Spring 2003;19(2):379-414.

48. GAO. Public Health Response to Anthrax Incidents of 2001. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office; October 2003. GAO-04-152.

49. GAO. Most Urban Hospitals Have Emergency Plans but Lack Certain Capacities for Bioterrorism Response. Washington, DC: United States General Accounting Office; August, 2003. GAO-03-924.

50. Flowers LK, Mothershead JL, Blackwell TH. Bioterrorism preparedness. II: The community and emergency medical services systems. Emerg Med Clin North Am 2002;20(2):457-76.

51. Knouss RF. National disaster medical system. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):49-52.

52. Landesman LY. Public health management of disasters: a practice guide. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association; 2001.

53. Blendon RJ, DesRoches CM, Benson JM, Herrmann MJ, Taylor-Clark K, Weldon KJ. The public and the smallpox threat. N Engl J Med 2003;348(5):426-32.

54. Greenberg MI, Jurgens SM, Gracely EJ. Emergency department preparedness for the evaluation and treatment of victims of biological or chemical terrorist attack. J Emerg Med 2002;22(3):273-8.

55. Schultz CH, Mothershead JL, Field M. Bioterrorism preparedness. I: The emergency department and hospital. Emerg Med Clin North Am May 2002;20(2):437-55.

56. Montello MJ, Ostroff C, Frank EC, Haffer AS, Rogers JR. 2001 anthrax crisis in Washington, D.C.: pharmacists' role in screening patients and selecting prophylaxis. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2002;59(12):1193-9.

57. Malecki J, Brumback CL. Need for physicians trained in preventive medicine and public health: implications for a bioterrorism response. J Public Health Manag Pract Mar-Apr 2003;9(2):89-90.

58. Rippen HE, Gursky E, Stoto MA. Importance of bioterrorism preparedness for family physicians. Am Fam Physician May 1 2003;67(9):1877-8.

59. Bartlett JG. Mobilizing professional communities. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):40-4.

60. Barbera J, Macintyre A, Gostin L, et al. Large-scale quarantine following biological terrorism in the United States: scientific examination, logistic and legal limits, and possible consequences. JAMA 2001;286(21):2711-7.

61. Glass TA. Understanding public response to disasters. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):69-73.

62. Bloem K. Treating the sick: capacity of the US Health Care System to respond to an epidemic. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):34-5.

63. Greenberg MI, Hendrickson RG. Report of the CIMERC/Drexel University Emergency Department Terrorism Preparedness Consensus Panel. Acad Emerg Med Jul 2003;10(7):783-8.

64. Laughrun GM. Preparing your hospital to respond to a terrorist attack. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2002;59(14):1329-30.

65. Pollard WE. Public perceptions of information sources concerning bioterrorism before and after anthrax attacks: an analysis of national survey data. J Health Commun 2003;8 Suppl 1:93-103; discussion 148-51.

66. Kuhr S, Hauer JM. Intergovernmental preparedness and response to potential catastrophic biological terrorism. J Public Health Manag Pract 2000;6(4):50-6.

67. Bioterrorism: coordination and preparedness—Heinrich, J. Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management, and Intergovernmental Relations. Committee on Government Reform. Washington, D.C.: United States General Accounting Office; 2001.

68. Stephenson J. Monkeypox outbreak a reminder of emerging infections vulnerabilities. JAMA Jul 2 2003;290(1):23-4.

69. Terriff CM, Tee AM. Citywide pharmaceutical preparation for bioterrorism. Am J Health Syst Pharm Feb 1 2001;58(3):233-7.

70. Auf der Heide E. Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St. Louis: Mosby; 1989. Chapter 8, Triage.

71. Haffer AS, Rogers JR, Montello MJ, Frank EC, Ostroff C. 2001 anthrax crisis in Washington, D.C.: clinic for persons exposed to contaminated mail. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2002;59(12):1189-92.

72. Benedek DM, Holloway HC, Becker SM. Emergency mental health management in bioterrorism events. Emerg Med Clin North Am May 2002;20(2):393-407.

73. Stein BD, Tanielian TL, Vaiana ME, Rhodes HJ, Burnam MA. The role of schools in meeting community needs during bioterrorism. Biosecur Bioterror 2003;1(4):273-81.

74. Ridge T. National Incident Management System. Washington, DC: Department of Homeland Security; March 2004.

75. Koplan J. CDC's strategic plan for bioterrorism preparedness and response. Public Health Reports 2001;116(Suppl 2):9-16.

76. Auf der Heide E. Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St. Louis: Mosby; 1989. Chapter 9, The Incident Command System (ICS).

77. Brown BS, Prior SD. Public health and public trust: the defining dyad for the 21st century. Int J Emerg Ment Health Fall 2002;4(4):239-44.

78. Hall MJ, Norwood AE, Ursano RJ, Fullerton CS. The psychological impacts of bioterrorism. Biosecur Bioterror 2003;1(2):139-44.

79. Vanderford ML. Communication lessons learned in the Emergency Operations Center during CDC's anthrax response: a commentary. J Health Commun 2003;8 Suppl 1:11-2.

80. State of California Mass Prophylaxis Guide. Emergency Medical Services Authority of California. Available at: Accessed April 2, 2004.

81. Simple triage and rapid treatment. CERT-Los Angeles. Available at: Accessed 09/09/02, 2002.

82. Suspected exposure to bioterrorism agent emergency department triage guidelines. Stanford University Medical Center Bioterrorism and Emergency Preparedness Task Force [Web-page]. 12/08/01. Available at: Accessed November 15, 2002.

83. Holloway HC, Norwood AE, Fullerton CS, Engel CC, Jr., Ursano RJ. The threat of biological weapons. Prophylaxis and mitigation of psychological and social consequences. JAMA 1997;278(5):425-7.

84. Hupert N, Cuomo J. Bioterrorism and Epidemic Outbreak Response Model (BERM). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Available at: Accessed April 2, 2004.

85. Capital Health. Mass immunization campaigns: A "how to" guide based on experience during the February 2000 Capital Health meningococcal immunization campaign. Alberta, Canada; 2000.

86. Osterholm MT. How to vaccinate 30,000 people in three days: realities of outbreak management. Public Health Rep 2001;116(Suppl 2):74-8.

87. New model developed for outbreak readiness. Healthcare Benchmarks Qual Improv Sep 2003;10(9):101-2.

88. Giovachino M, Carey N. Modeling the consequences of bioterrorism response. Mil Med 2001;166(11):925-30.

89. Emergency Management and Public Health: How Are Emergencies Handled in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts? Massachusetts Department of Health; 2001.

90. California Hospital Bioterrorism Response Planning Guide. Sacramento, California: Department of Health Services and Emergency Medical Services Authority of California; 2002.

91. Guidelines for the development of local action plan for use of the following assets: state pharmaceutical stockpiles (SPS) and National Pharmaceutical Stockpile (NPS). Florida: Florida Department of Health, Office of Emergency Management; 2002.

92. Kaplan EH, Craft DL, Wein LM. Emergency response to a smallpox attack: the case for mass vaccination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2002;99(16):10935-40.

93. Halloran ME, Longini IM Jr., Nizam A, Yang Y. Containing bioterrorist smallpox. Science 2002;298(5597):1428-32.

94. Bozzette SA, Boer R, Bhatnagar V, et al. A model for a smallpox-vaccination policy. N Engl J Med Jan 30 2003;348(5):416-25.

95. Henderson DA, Inglesby TV, Bartlett JG, et al. Smallpox as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA 1999;281(22):2127-37.

96. Breman JG, Henderson DA. Diagnosis and management of smallpox. N Engl J Med 2002;346(17):1300-8.

97. Lane JM, Goldstein J. Evaluation of 21st-century risks of smallpox vaccination and policy options. Ann Intern Med Mar 18 2003;138(6):488-93.

98. Mack T. A different view of smallpox and vaccination. N Engl J Med 2003;348(5):460-3.

99. Breman JG, Arita I, Fenner F. Preventing the return of smallpox. N Engl J Med 2003;348(5):463-6.

100. Fauci AS. Smallpox vaccination policy—the need for dialogue. N Engl J Med 2002;346(17):1319-20.

101. Lane JM. Smallpox and smallpox vaccination. N Engl J Med 2002;347(9):691; author reply 691-2.

102. Smallpox Response Plan and Guidelines (Version 3.0). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Exp. Date 06/2003. Available at: Accessed February 21, 2003.

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