Chapter 2. Quality of Health Care (continued, 5)

National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2008


References

1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Your guide to choosing quality health care. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2001. Available at: http://archive.ahrq.gov/consumer/qnt/.

2. Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.

3. American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer Society; 2008. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/STT/content/STT_1x_Cancer_Facts_and_Figures_2008.asp [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed April 1, 2008.

4. Kung HC, Hoyert DL, Xu JQ, et al. Deaths: final data for 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2008;56(10). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2008. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr56/nvsr56_10.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed April 28, 2008.

5. National Cancer Institute. Cancer Query System: Cancer Prevalence Database. U.S. estimated complete prevalence counts on 1/1/2004. Available at: http://srab.cancer.gov/prevalence/canques.html. Accessed April 18, 2007.

6. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Fact book fiscal year 2006. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institutes; 2006. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/06factpdf.pdf [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 27, 2008.

7. Maciosek MV, Coffield AB, Edwards NM, et al. Priorities among effective clinical preventive services: results of a systematic review and analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2006 Jul;31(1):52-61.

8. Making cancer health disparities history. Report of the Trans-HHS Cancer Health Disparities Progress Review Group. Submitted to the Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; March 2004. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/chdprg/pdf/chdprg.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 12, 2008.

9. American College of Surgeons and American Cancer Society. Cancer data & statistics. National Cancer Data Base; 2005 Available at: http://www.facs.org/cancer/publicncdb.html.

10. Fisher B, Anderson S, Bryant J, et al. Twenty-year followup of a randomized trial comparing total mastectomy, lumpectomy, and lumpectomy plus irradiation for the treatment of invasive breast cancer. New Engl J Med 2002;347:1233-41.

11. Buchholz TA, Theriault RL, Niland JC, et al. The use of radiation as a component of breast conservation therapy in National Comprehensive Cancer Network Centers. J Clin Oncol 2006;24:361-9.

12. Desch CE, McNiff KK, Schneider EC, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology/National Comprehensive Cancer Network Quality Measures. J Clin Oncol 2008;26(21):3631-7.

13. Chang GJ, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Skibber JM, et al. Lymph node evaluation and survival after curative resection of colon cancer: systematic review. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99(6):433-41.

14. Bilimoria KY, Bentrem DJ, Stewart AK, et al. Lymph node evaluation as a colon cancer quality measure: a national hospital report card. J Natl Cancer Inst 2008;100(18):1310-7. Epub 2008 Sep 9.

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2007. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/estimates07.htm. Accessed June 30, 2008.

16. American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2007. Diabetes Care 2008;31(3):596-615. Review. Erratum in: Diabetes Care 2008;31(6):1271.

17. National Quality Forum. National voluntary consensus standards for adult diabetes care: a consensus report. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; 2002.

18. National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance. National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance Performance Measurement Set for Adult Diabetes. Chicago, IL: NDQIA; 2003.

19. National Diabetes Education Program. Guiding principles for diabetes care: for health care providers. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; April 2004. NIH Publication No. 99-4343. Available at: http://ndep.nih.gov/diabetes/pubs/GuidPrin_HC_Eng.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed June 7, 2006.

20. Healthcare Systems Bureau, Division of Transplantation. 2007 Annual report of the U.S. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients: transplant data 1997-2006. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration; 2008.

21. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse. Treatment methods for kidney failure: transplantation. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; May 2006. NIH Publication No. 06-4687. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/transplant/. Accessed June 7, 2006.

22. Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Waitlist and transplant activity for kidneys, 1995-2004 [PowerPoint slide]. Based on 2005 Annual report of the U.S. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, Tables 1.3, 1.6, 1.7.

23. American Heart Association. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2008 update. Dallas: American Heart Association; 2008.

24. Rosamond W, Flegal K, Friday G, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2007 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2007 Feb 6;115(5);e69-e171.

25. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults: United States, 2003-2004. NCHS EStats. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; April 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overweight/overwght_adult_03.htm. Accessed March 29, 2007.

26. Available at: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Overweight and Obesity. http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/. Accessed May 8, 2006.

27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in multiple risk factors for heart disease and stroke—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005 Feb 11;54(5):113-7. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5405a1.htm.

28. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in adults: recommendations and rationale. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/obesity/obesrr.htm. Accessed May 8, 2006.

29. Diaz VA, Mainous 3rd AG, Koopman RJ, et al. Undiagnosed obesity: implications for undiagnosed hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Fam Med 2004 Oct;36(9):639-44.

30. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2006; vol. 18. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/2006report/pdf/2006SurveillanceReport.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 27, 2008.

31. Hall HI, Song R, Rhodes P, et al. Estimation of HIV incidence in the United States. JAMA 2008;300:520-9.

32. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. HIV/AIDS Policy Fact Sheet. Washington, DC: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation; October 2008. Available at: http://www.kff.org/hivaids/upload/3029-09.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 27, 2008.

33. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2006, vol. 18, Table 7. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2008. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/2006report/pdf/2006SurveillanceReport.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed November 17, 2008.

34. Shapiro MF, Morton SC, McCaffrey DF, et al. Variations in the care of HIV-Infected adults in the United States. JAMA 1999;281:2305-15.

35. Available at: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS and African Americans. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/aa/index.htm. Accessed May 27, 2008.

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leading Causes of Death reports, 2005. WISQARS [Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System]. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/WISQARS/. Accessed March 18, 2008.

37. Turner BJ, Cunningham WE, Duan N, et al. Delayed medical care after diagnosis in a US national probability sample of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Ach Intern Med 2000;160:2614-22.

38. Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States and dependent areas, 2005. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, vol. 17. Revised edition, June 2007. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/2005report/default.htm. Accessed May 27, 2008.

39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, vol. 17, 2005, Table 5a. Revised edition, 2007. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/.

40. Hader SL, Smith DK, Moore JS, et al. HIV infection in women in the United States. JAMA 2001;285:1186-92.

41. HIV and AIDS—United States, 1981-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001 Jun 1;50(21):430-4. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5021a2.htm. Accessed May 5, 2006.

42. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States, 2003. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, vol. 15, 2004. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/resources/reports/2003report/default.htm. Accessed May 8, 2006.

43. Clinical management of the HIV-infected adult: a manual for midlevel clinicians. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration; revised 2003. Available at: http://www.seatec.emory.edu/clinicalprotocols/clinical_protocols_manual2003.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed May 8, 2006.

44. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, et al. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005 Jun;62(6):617-27. Erratum 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV disorders by sex and cohort Table 2. Available at: http://www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/ftpdir/table_ncsr_12monthprevgenderxage.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed July 14, 2008.

45. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Traffic safety facts. 2006 traffic safety annual assessment—alcohol-related fatalities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation; August 2007. Available at: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/nhtsa_static_file_downloader.jsp?file=/staticfiles/DOT/NHTSA/NCSA/Content/RNotes/2007/810821.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 27, 2008.

46. Office of Applied Studies. Results from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National findings. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2007. NSDUH Series H-32, DHHS Publication No. SMA 07-4293. Available at: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k6nsduh/2k6results.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 27, 2008.

47. Mark TL, Levit KR, Coffey RM, et al. National expenditures for mental health services and substance abuse treatment, 19932003. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2007. SAMHSA Publication No. SMA 07-4227. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/spendingestimates/SAMHSAFINAL9303.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed November 5, 2008.

48. Owens P, Myers M, Elixhauser A, et al. Care of adults with mental health and substance abuse disorders in U.S. community hospitals, 2004. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2007. HCUP Fact Book No. 10, AHRQ Publication No. 07-0008.

49. Demyttenaere K, Bruffaerts R, Posada-Villa J, et al. WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium. Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. JAMA 2004 Jun 2;291(21):2581-90.

50. Center for Mental Health Services. Mental health: culture, race, and ethnicity—a supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2001. Available at: http://download.ncadi.samhsa.gov/ken/pdf/SMA-01-3613/sma-01-3613.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed June 7, 2006.

51. Bird DC, Dempsey P, Hartley D. Addressing mental health workforce needs in underserved rural areas: accomplishments and challenges. Portland, ME: Maine Rural Health Research Center, University of Southern Maine; 2001

52. Wang PS, Lane M, Olfson M, et al. Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62(6):629-40.

53. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Morbidity & mortality: 2007 chart book on cardiovascular, lung, and blood diseases. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2007. Available at http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/resources/docs/07a-chtbk.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed August 13, 2007.

54. National Health Interview Survey. Table 31. Current asthma population estimates, in thousands, by age. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2008. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/nhis/06/pdfs/table3-1.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed on August 12, 2008.

55. Bloom B, Dey AN. Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National Health Interview Survey, 2004. Vital Health Stat 2006;10(227). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_227.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed March 3, 2006.

56. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases. Common cold. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2004. Available at: http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/healthscience/healthtopics/colds/overview.htm. Accessed November 7, 2005.

57. Kozak LJ, DeFrances CJ, Hall MJ. National Hospital Discharge Survey: 2004 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. Vital Health Stat 2006 Oct;13(162). Table 12: Rate of discharges from short-stay hospitals by age and first-listed diagnosis: United States 2004. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_13/sr13_162.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed May 15, 2007.

58. Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, et al. The economic burden of noninfluenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Arch Intern Med 2003 Feb 24;163(4):487-94.

59. Davis MM. Race-based immunization recommendations and the potential to reduce health disparities. JAMA 2004 May 12;291(18):2253-5.

60. Flannery B, Schrag S, Bennett NM, et al. Active Bacterial Core Surveillance/Emerging Infections Program Network. Impact of childhood vaccination on racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. JAMA 2004 May 12;291(18):2197-2203.

61. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report 2: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Bethesda MD: National Institutes of Health; 1997. NIH Publication No. 97-4051.

62. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Key clinical activities for quality asthma care: recommendations of the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 2003 March 28;52(RR06):18. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5206a1.htm.

63. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Quick reference for the NAEPP Expert Panel Report: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma—update on selected topics 2002. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2002. NIH Publication No. 02-5075. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/archives/epr-2_upd/asthmafullrpt_archive.pdf. [Plugin Software Help].

64. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program expert panel report: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma update on selected topics 2002. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002 Nov;110(5):S141-219.

65. Nursing Home Data Compendium. 2007 edition. Table 2.1. Characteristics of nursing home residents in the United States, 2006. Rockville, MD: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services; 2007.

66. A databook: healthcare spending and the Medicare Program. Section 9, post-acute care. Washington, DC: Medicare Payment Advisory Commission; June 2008. Available at: http://www.medpac.gov/chapters/Jun08DataBookSec9.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 23, 2008.

67. Medicare home health agency utilization by State; calendar year 2006. Baltimore: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicareFeeforSvcPartsAB/Downloads/HHAst06.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 19, 2008.

68. Medicare hospice utilization by State; calendar year 2006. Baltimore: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicareFeeforSvcPartsAB/Downloads/HOSPICE06.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 19, 2008.

69. Table 2. National health expenditures aggregate amounts and average annual percent change, by type of expenditure: selected calendar years 1970-2006. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/NationalHealthExpendData/downloads/tables.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed October 30, 2007.

70. Health Care Information System. Medicare national summary for HHA, hospice, SNF, and outpatient CY 2004-2006. Baltimore: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Available at: http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicareFeeforSvcPartsAB/Downloads/NationalSum0406.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed September 5, 2008.

71. Field MJ, Cassell CK, eds. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Care at the End of Life. Approaching death: improving care at the end of life. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1997.

72. Connor SR, Teno J, Spence C, et al. Family Evaluation of Hospice Care: results from voluntary submission of data via website. J Pain Symptom Manage 2005 Jul;30(1):9-17.

73. Teno J, Shu J, Casarett D, et al. Timing of referral to hospice and quality of care: length of stay and bereaved family members' perceptions of the timing of hospice referral. J Pain Symptom Manage 2007 Aug;34(2):120-5. Epub 2007 Jun 21.

74. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS, eds. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To err is human: building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2000.

75. Zhan C, Miller MR. Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA 2003;290(14):1868-74.

76. Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 1998 Apr 15;279(15):1200-5.

77. Lesar TS, Lomaestro B, Pohl H. Medication-prescribing errors in a teaching hospital. A 9-year experience. Arch Intern Med 1997 Jul 28;157(14):1569-76.

78. Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, et al. Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. JAMA 1997 Jan 2229; 277(4):3016.

79. Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events. Implications for prevention. ADE Prevention Study Group. JAMA 1995 Jul 5;274(1):29-34.

80. Romano PS, Geppert JJ, Davies S, et al. A national profile of patient safety in U.S. hospitals. Health Aff 2003 Mar-Apr;22(2):154-66.

81. Coffey RM, Andrews RM, Moy E. Racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in estimates of AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators. Med Care 2005;43(3 Suppl):I48-I63.

82. Flores G, Ngui E. Racial/ethnic disparities and patient safety. Pediatr Clin N Am 2006;53:1197-1215.

83. Zhan C, Sangl J, Bierman AS, et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly: findings from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA 2001 Dec 12;286(22):2823-9.

84. Leddy KM, Kaldenberg DO, Becker BW. Timeliness in ambulatory care treatment. An examination of patient satisfaction and wait times in medical practices and outpatient test and treatment facilities. J Ambul Care Manage 2003 Apr-Jun; 26(2):138-49.

85. Boudreau RM, McNally C, Rensing EM, et al. Improving the timeliness of written patient notification of mammography results by mammography centers. Breast J 2004 Jan-Feb;10(1):10-19.

86. Schellinger PD, Warach S. Therapeutic time window of thrombolytic therapy following stroke. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2004 Jul;6(4):288-94.

87. Kwan J, Hand P, Sandercock P. Improving the efficiency of delivery of thrombolysis for acute stroke: a systematic review. QJM 2004 May;97(5):273-9.

88. Kinchen KS, Sadler J, Fink N, et al. The timing of specialist evaluation in chronic kidney disease and mortality. Ann Intern Med 2002 Sep 17;137(6):479-86.

89. Houck PM, Bratzler DW. Administration of first hospital antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia: does timeliness affect outcomes? Curr Opin Infect Dis 2005 Apr;18(2):151-6.

90. Luman ET, Barker LE, Shaw KM, et al. Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in the United States: days under vaccinated and number of vaccines delayed. JAMA 2005 Mar 9;293(10):1204-11.

91. Himelhoch S, Weller WE, Wu AW, et al. Chronic medical illness, depression, and use of acute medical services among Medicare beneficiaries. Med Care 2004 Jun;42(6):512-21.

92. Caro JJ, Ward AJ, O'Brien JA. Lifetime costs of complications resulting from type 2 diabetes in the U.S. Diabetes Care 2002 Mar;25(3):476-81.

93. Calculated from: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. 2003 Kids' Inpatient Database. Available at: http://hcupnet.ahrq.gov/. Accessed October 30, 2007.

94. McCaig LF, Nawar EN. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2004 emergency department summary. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, No. 372. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2006. DHHS Publication No. (PHS) 20061250. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad372.pdf. [Plugin Software Help]. Accessed April 24, 2007.

95. Hurtado MP, Swift EK, Corrigan JM, eds. Institute of Medicine, Committee on the National Quality Report on Health Care Delivery. Envisioning the National Health Care Quality Report. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001.

96. Stewart M, Brown JB, Donner A, et al. The impact of patient centered care on outcomes. J Fam Pract 2000 Sep;49(9):796-804.

97. Anderson EB. Patient centeredness: a new approach. Nephrol News Issues 2002 Nov;16(12):8082.

98. Michie S, Miles J, Weinman J. Patient-centredness in chronic illness: what is it and does it matter? Patient Educ Couns 2003 Nov;51(3):197-206.

99. Little P, Everitt H, Williamson I, et al. Observational study of effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. BMJ 2001 Oct 20;323(7318):908-11.

100. Beck R, Daughtridge R, Sloane PD. Physician-patient communication in the primary care office: a systematic review. J Am Board Fam Pract 2002 Jan-Feb;15(1):25-38.

101. DiMatteo M. The role of the physician in the emerging health care environment. West J Med 1998 May;168(5):328-33.

102. Gazmararian J, Williams MV, Peel J, et al. Health literacy and knowledge of chronic disease. Patient Educ Couns 2003 Nov;51(3):267-75.

103. Parker RM, Ratzan SC, Lurie N. Health literacy: a policy challenge for advancing high-quality health care. Health Aff 2003 Jul-Aug;22(4):147-53.

104. Selden C, Zorn M, Ratzan S, et al., compilers. Health literacy: January 1990 through October 1999 [bibliography]. Current Bibliographies in Medicine 2000 February: vi.

105. Scott TL, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, et al. Health literacy and preventive health care use among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. Med Care 2002 May;40(5):395404. In: Gazmararian JA, Curran JW, Parker RM, et al. Public health literacy in America: an ethical imperative. Am J Prev Med 2005 Apr;28(3):317-22.

106. Williams M, Baker DW, Parker RM, et al. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Intern Med 1998 Jan 26;158(2):166-72.

107. Williams M, Baker DW, Honig EG, et al. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest 1998 Oct;114(4):1008-15.

108. Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. J Gen Intern Med 1998 Dec;13(12):791-8.

109. Baker DW, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, et al. Functional health literacy and the risk of hospital admission among Medicare managed care enrollees. Am J Public Health 2002;92:1278-83.

110. Berkman N, DeWalt D, Pignone MP, et al. Literacy and health outcomes summary. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment no. 87. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004. AHRQ Publication No. 04-E0071. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/litsum.htm.

111. Nielsen-Bohlman L, Panzer AM, Kindig DA, eds. Institute of Medicine, Committee on Health Literacy. Health literacy: a prescription to end confusion. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004.

112. Rhoades DR, McFarland KF, Finch WH, et al. Speaking and interruptions during primary care office visits. Fam Med 2001 Jul-Aug;33(7):528-32.

113. Berry L, Seiders K, Wilder SS. Innovations in access to care: a patient centered approach. Ann Intern Med 2003 Oct 7;139(7):568-74.

114. Available at: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. Think Cultural Health: bridging the health care gap through cultural competency continuing education programs. http://www.thinkculturalhealth.org. Accessed July 11, 2006.

115. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office for Civil Rights. Guidance to Federal financial assistance recipients regarding Title VI prohibition against national origin discrimination affecting limited English proficient persons. 68 Fed. Reg. 47311-02 (August 8, 2003). Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/civilrights/resources/specialtopics/lep/policyguidancedocument.html.

116. Hargraves JL, Hays RD, Cleary PD. Psychometric properties of the Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Study (CAHPS) 2.0 adult core survey. Health Serv Res 2003 Dec;38(6 Pt 1):1509-27.

117. U.S. population reaches 300 million. Washington, DC: The Population Institute; October 16, 2006.

118. Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Drake M, et al. The role of Black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for underserved populations. N Engl J Med 1996 May 16;334(20):1305-10.

119.Turner CB, Turner BF. Who treats minorities? Cult Divers Ment Health 1996;2(3):175-82.

120. Nickens HW. The rationale for minority-targeted programs in medicine in the 1990s. JAMA 1992 May 6;267(17):2390, 2395.

121. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Occupational outlook handbook, 2008-09 edition. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos102.htm. Accessed June 4, 2008.

122. Seago JA, Spetz J, Chapman S, et al. Can the use of LPNs alleviate the nursing shortage? Am J Nurs 2006 July;106(7):40-49.

Current as of March 2009
Internet Citation: Chapter 2. Quality of Health Care (continued, 5): National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2008. March 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr08/Chap2e.html