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Evaluation of Hospital Disaster Drills: A Module-Based Approach

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

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Biological Incident Addendum


This module was developed by the Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0018 from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. The content of this module is intended to provide guidance for hospital disaster drill evaluation and should not be construed as representing standards of care or recommendations on how to respond to specific types of disasters. No statement in this module should be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Instructions: Attach to Incident Command, Triage, and Treatment Zone Modules for biologic drills.

Note: Circle or check (_) as indicated. Y = Yes; N = No; U = Unclear; NA = Not applicable


Observer: ______________________________________________________________             Date: ____/____/____

Observer title: ___________________________________________________________

Zone: __________________________________________________________________

Hospital: _______________________________________________________________

Period of time of evaluation: _____________ AM / PM (Circle one) to _____________ AM / PM (Circle one)

Time Points

Event Time

BA1. Time that the zone became aware that victims were affected by a biological illness: (Circle one)

_____________ AM / PM / U

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Information Flow

Question Response
BA2. Was the incident commander informed that a biological illness was present? Y / N / U

BA3. How was the incident commander notified? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] FAX sent
b. [  ] E-mail sent
c. [  ] Person-to-person contact
d. [  ] Telephone message
e. [  ] Unclear
f.  [  ] NA
g. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA4. If the incident commander was informed of a biological illness, how long after the biological illness was suspected did notification occur? (Check one)

O < 30 min
O 30-59 min
O 1-2 hrs
O > 2 hrs
O Unclear
O NA

BA5. Was the hospital epidemiologist or designee informed that a biological illness was present?

Y / N / U

BA6. How was the hospital epidemiologist or designee notified? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] FAX sent
b. [  ] E-mail sent
c. [  ] Person-to-person contact
d. [  ] Telephone message
e. [  ] Unclear
f.  [  ] NA
g. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA7. If the hospital epidemiologist or designee was contacted, how long after the biological illness was suspected did notification occur? (Check one)

O < 30 min
O 30-59 min
O 1-2 hrs
O > 2 hrs
O Unclear
O NA

Items BA8-16 are intended for the Incident Command Zone observer only. Observers in other zones should skip to item BA17.

Question Response
BA8. Was the local and/or State health department informed that a biological illness was present? Y / N / U

BA9. How was the local and/or State health department notified? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] FAX sent
b. [  ] E-mail sent
c. [  ] Person-to-person contact
d. [  ] Telephone message
e. [  ] Unclear
f.  [  ] NA
g. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA10. If the local and/or State health department was informed, how long after the biological illness was suspected did notification occur? (Check one)

O < 30 min
O 30-59 min
O 1-2 hrs
O > 2 hrs
O Unclear
O NA

BA11. Was the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) informed that a biological illness was present?

Y / N / U

BA12. How was the CDC notified? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] FAX sent
b. [  ] E-mail sent
c. [  ] Person-to-person contact
d. [  ] Telephone message
e. [  ] Unclear
f.  [  ] NA
g. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA13. If the CDC was informed, how long after the biological illness was suspected did notification occur? (Check one)

O < 30 min
O 30-59 min
O 1-2 hrs
O > 2 hrs
O Unclear
O NA

BA14. Was occupational health informed that a biological illness was present?

Y / N / U

BA15. How was occupational health notified? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] FAX sent
b. [  ] E-mail sent
c. [  ] Person-to-person contact
d. [  ] Telephone message
e. [  ] Unclear
f.  [  ] NA
g. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA16. If occupational health was informed, how long after the biological illness was suspected did notification occur? (Check one)

O < 30 min
O 30-59 min
O 1-2 hrs
O > 2 hrs
O Unclear
O NA

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Materials and Supplies

Question Response
BA17. Were needed vaccines available within the hospital? Y / N / U / NA

BA18. Were vaccines requested from an outside source?

Y / N / U / NA
BA19. If vaccines were requested from an outside source, did they arrive? Y / N / U / NA

BA20. What was the approximate time between request and delivery of vaccines from the outside agency? (Check one)

O < 2 hours
O 2-6 hours
O 7-12 hours
O 13-24 hours
O > 24 hrs
O Did not arrive
O NA

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If using BIOLOGICAL INCIDENT ADDENDUM in the INCIDENT COMMAND ZONE, STOP HERE, do not complete the rest of module.

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Victim Diagnosis

Question Response
BA21. Was the cause of the suspected biological illness known prior to the arrival of affected victims in this zone? Y / N / U

BA22. If the cause of the illness was not known prior to victim arrival, how long after the first victim arrived was the cause of the illness identified? (Check one)

O < 1 hr
O 1-4 hrs
O 5-8 hrs
O > 8 hrs
O Never Identified
O NA

BA23. What was the cause of the illness? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] Anthrax
b. [  ] Botulism
c. [  ] Plague
d. [  ] Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
e. [  ] Smallpox
f.  [  ] Tularemia
g. [  ] Viral hemorrhagic fever
h. [  ] Unknown
i. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA24. What resources were used to make the diagnosis(es)? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] Consultation with an in-hospital expert
b. [  ] Consultation with an expert from another hospital
c. [  ] Consultation with an expert from local health department
d. [  ] Consultation with an expert from State health department
e. [  ] Consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
f.  [  ] History and physical exam by the treating physician
g. [  ] Microbiological data
h. [  ] Radiologic data
i. [  ] NA
j. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA25. Were cameras used in the drill to document cases?

Y / N / U / NA

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Safety: Isolation Precautions

Question Response
BA26. Was isolation required for the suspected biological illness involved?

(Isolation required for smallpox, plague, viral hemorrhagic fever, certain pneumonias or rashes, and other symptoms suggestive of a contagious infectious outbreak.)

Y / N / U
BA27. If isolation was required, were victims transported into an isolation room? Y / N / U / NA

BA28. If they were transported to an isolation room, was the room under negative pressure?

Y / N / U / NA

If no isolation was required, skip to the Screening and Prophylaxis section.

Question Response
BA29. Were there enough isolation rooms? Y / N / U

BA30. If not enough isolation rooms, how were victims isolated? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] Conversion of other rooms/area (specify):
________________________________
b. [  ] Existing isolation room in other area (specify):
________________________________
c. [  ] Overflow victims not isolated
d. [  ] Victims with the same suspected biological illness placed in the same isolation room
e. [  ] NA
f.  [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA31. Were there signs on victims' doors that described the type of isolation required?

Y / N / U

BA32. Were sign-in sheets placed at each isolation room door? Y / N / U

BA33. Did health care workers sign in and out?

Y / N / U / NA

BA34. Were any breaches in isolation precautions identified?

(If there were any breaches in the isolation precautions, specify in comment box at end of this section.)

Y / N / U
BA35. Were victims with similar symptoms grouped together in the zone? Y / N / U / NA

BA36. Were unaffected patients removed from areas with affected victims?

Y / N / U / NA

BA37. Were precautions taken when handling materials or equipment that came into contact with potentially infected victims? Y / N / U

BA38. Were masks supplied to unaffected victims in this zone?

Y / N / U / NA

BA39. Were lists of exposed and non-exposed victims generated? Y / N / U

BA40. Did representatives from infection control arrive in the zone to assess the appropriateness of isolation precautions?

Y / N / U

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Safety: Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Question Response
BA41. Given the suspected biological illness, was PPE needed to protect health care workers?

(Isolation required for smallpox, plague, viral hemorrhagic fever, certain pneumonias or rashes, and other symptoms suggestive of a contagious infectious outbreak.)

If needed, were these safety materials available for the health care workers?
Y / N / U

If a safety item was not available, circle "N" in column "a" and go to the next row.

Safety Materials a. Available? b. Used by staff? c. Adequate Supply?
BA42. Passive (negative pressure) filtration (e.g., N95 or N99 masks) Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA
BA43. Powered (positive pressure) filtration (e.g., PAPR) Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA
BA44. Self-contained breathing apparatus Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA
BA45. Level B or higher suits (e.g., heat bound or serged seams) Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA
BA46. Other (specify): _______________ Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA
BA47. Other (specify): _______________ Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA
BA48. Other (specify): _______________ Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA Y / N / U/ NA

Question Response
BA49. Did you observe staff without PPE interacting with contaminated victims? Y / N / U/ NA

BA50. If the staff were interacting with contaminated victims without PPE, what types of staff were they? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] Ancillary staff
b. [  ] Nurses
c. [  ] Physicians
d. [  ] Did not observe
e. [  ] NA
f.  [  ] Other (specify):
__________________________________

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Screening and Prophylaxis

Question Response

BA51. Were prophylactic medications available for staff exposed to plague or anthrax?

Y / N / U / NA

BA52. Were prophylactic medications available for victims exposed to plague or anthrax? Y / N / U/ NA

BA53. Were vaccinations available for health care workers exposed to smallpox?

Y / N / U / NA

BA54. Were vaccinations available for victims exposed to smallpox? Y / N / U/ NA

BA55. Where were victims who needed screening for exposure and/or prophylaxis managed? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] Emergency department
b. [  ] Referred to health department clinic
c. [  ] Referred to hospital clinic
d. [  ] Triage
e. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Laboratory Specimens

Question Response

BA56. How were specimens transported to the lab? (Check all that apply)

a. [  ] Hand carried
b. [  ] Packaged for sending to outside labs
c. [  ] Other (specify):
________________________________

BA57. Were guidelines available for packaging and transporting microbiological specimens?

Y / N / U

BA58. Was the "chain of custody" implemented?a Y / N / U

a Chain of custody is defined as securing items continuously and marking evidence gathered by date, time, location, and when, how, and by whom acquired. It includes signatures of all persons successively responsible for custody. It must be conducted so the validity of the chain of custody will hold up in court.

Comments (if comment refers to a specific item, give the item number):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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