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Research Activities

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May 1998, No. 215


About Research Activities

Feature Story

Half the cases of early childhood asthma are due to secondhand cigarette smoke


Health Care Delivery
   Nearly one-third of U.S. toddlers have not received complete immunizations
   Laboratory testing and antibiotic therapy are often at odds with expert advice about Lyme disease care

Clinical Decisionmaking
   Treadmill testing of certain ED patients with chest pain may substantially reduce hospital admissions and costs
   Heparin reduces catheter-related clot formation and may reduce catheter-related infections
   Moderately anemic elderly patients who undergo surgery don't necessarily require blood transfusions
   Nonclinical factors affect use of maternal corticosteroids to reduce respiratory complications in premature infants

Outcomes/Effectiveness Research
   Using relatively inexpensive antibiotics to treat pneumonia does not lead to poorer medical outcomes
   You can help us show how health services research makes a difference
   Stoke PORT examines post-stroke risks and outcomes of carotid endarterectomy

Hospital Studies
   Receipt of certain major procedures by hospitalized adults varies by race and sex
   Problems in communicating critical hospital lab results delay necessary treatment

Managed Care
   HMO coverage may alter treatment choices and hospital stays for women with breast cancer
   Managed care patients with chronic diseases are hospitalized less often than those with traditional insurance
   Priorities identified for managed care research agenda
   Attention AHCPR-funded researchers
   Managed care plans develop research capabilities and partnerships
   A changing health care environment presents both challenges and opportunities for health services researchers

Health Care Costs and Financing
   California hospitals shifted costs from public to private payers during the 1980s
   Multiple births raise neonatal intensive care charges 250-400 percent over singleton births
   Job lock due to loss of employer-related health insurance is smaller than previously thought

Health Care Access and Quality
   Reasons vary for lacking a usual source of health care
   Discharge abstract data may not be a reliable indicator of hospital quality of care for bypass surgery
   Linking published evidence with practice data can change physicians' practice behavior

Elderly/Long-term Care
   Attitudes toward medical care and risk affect demand by elderly for Medigap insurance
   Use of long-term care varies according to race

Special Populations
   Asthma disproportionately affects blacks who often go to the ER for asthma care
   Rural teens are just as likely as urban teens to become pregnant

HIV/AIDS Research
   Preventing AIDS-related opportunistic infections is cost effective

AHCPR News and Notes
   From the Administrator: Academic health centers have an important role in improving health services research and health care
   AHCPR announces availability of prevention materials
   Register now for AHCPR's second conference on evidence-based practice
   AHCPR invites guidelines for public/private clearinghouse

   AHCPR releases new hospital data
   AHCPR funds new studies
   New publications now available from AHCPR and NTIS

Research Briefs
   Impact of opportunistic disease on survival in patients with HIV infection
   Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis using PCR assays on sputum collected within 24 hours of hospital admission
   Public release of cardiac surgery outcomes data in New York: What do New York State cardiologists think of it?
   Minority issues in Alzheimer disease outcomes research
   Competition between for-profit and nonprofit health care providers: Can it help achieve social goals?
   A synoptic evaluation of asthma hospital admissions in New York City
   Finding health-related quality of life outcomes sensitive to healthcare organization and delivery
   A comparison of patient and nurse ratings of human immunodeficiency virus-related signs and symptoms
   The quality-of-life effect of interferon beta-1b in multiple sclerosis
   Clinic HIV-focused features and prevention of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia

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