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Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and may now be outdated. Archive material is no longer maintained, and some links may not work. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing this information should contact us at: https://info.ahrq.gov. Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your contact information.

Please go to www.ahrq.gov for current information.

Appendix B. Bibliography

Chapter 1. Introduction

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2005, 16-18. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altstand/index.html. Accessed November 27, 2006.

Chapter 3. Assessing the Legal Environment Concerning Mass Casualty Event Planning and Response

50 U.S.C. §§ 1601(b) (2006). 

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2005, 16-18. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altstand/index.html. Accessed November 27, 2006.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Pub. L. No. 101-336.

Center for Law and the Public's Health. Model State Emergency Health Powers Act. (2001). Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/MSEHPA/MSEHPA2.pdf. Accessed April 15, 2006.

Center for Law and the Public's Health, Health Resources and Services Agency. Emergency System for Advance Registration of Volunteer Health Professionals (ESAR-VHP)—Legal and Regulatory Issues. 2006:23.

Center for Law and the Public's Health. MSEHPA Legislative Surveillance Table, July 15, 2006. Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/MSEHPA/MSEHPA%20Surveillance.pdf.  Accessed November 27, 2006. 

Center for Law and the Public's Health. Public health emergency legal preparedness checklist on interjurisdictional legal coordination. 2004. Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Resources/BTlaw.htm. Accessed November 27, 2006.

Center for Law and the Public's Health. Checklist on local government public health emergency legal preparedness and response. Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Resources/BTlaw.htm. Accessed November 27, 2006.

Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), Pub. L. No. 104-321.

Fox P. Cross-border assistance in emergencies: the New England/eastern Canadian model. New England Journal of International Contemporary Law 2004;11:75.

Federal Volunteer Protection Act of 1997. Pub. L. No. 105-19, § 4, 111 Stat. 218, 219 (1997), 42 U.S.C. § 14503 (2000); Ala. Code. § 6-5-336(d)(1) (LexisNexis 2005); Miss. Code Ann. § 95-9-1(3) (LexisNexis 1972).

Gostin LO. Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint. Berkeley: University of California Press; 2002:263-5.

Gostin, LO, Hodge JG Jr. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act —A Brief Commentary. Seattle: Turning Point Statute Modernization Collaborative, 2002; 1-42. Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Resources/Modellaws.htm#MSEHPA.  Accessed November 27, 2006.

Gostin LO, Sapsin JW, Teret SP, Burris S, Mair JS, Hodge JG Jr., Vernick JS. The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: planning for and response to bioterrorism and naturally occurring infectious diseases. JAMA 2002;288:622.

Hodge JG Jr. Bioterrorism law and policy: critical choices in public health. Journal of Law, Medicine, & Ethics 2002;30:254-5.

Hodge JG Jr. Delaware Public Health Emergency Law—Review, Recommendations, and a Blueprint for Reform. Dover, DE: Delaware Department of Health and Social Services; 2004;1-62.

Hodge JG Jr. The intersection of Federal health information privacy and State administrative law: the protection of individual health data and worker's compensation. Administrative Law Review 1999;51:117-44.

Hodge JG Jr. Legal issues concerning volunteer health professionals and the hurricane-related emergencies in the Gulf Coast region. Public Health Report 2006;121:205-7.

Hodge JG Jr. Legal triage during public health emergencies and disasters. Administrative Law Review. In press.

Hodge JG Jr, Calves S, Gable LA, Meltzer E, Kraner S. Risk management in the wake of hurricanes and other disasters: Hospital civil liability arising from the use of volunteer health professionals during emergencies. Michigan State University Journal of  Medicine and  Law. In press.

Hodge JG Jr, Gable LA, Calves S. The legal framework for meeting surge capacity through the use of volunteer health professionals during public health emergencies and other disasters. Journal of  Contemporary Health Law and Policy 2006;22:5-71.

Hodge JG Jr, O'Connell J. The legal environment underlying influenza vaccine allocation and distribution strategies. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2006;12(4):340-48.

Intergovernmental Mutual Aid Agreement for the establishment of the Illinois Public Health Mutual Aid System. Available at: http://www.idph.state.il.us/local/mutualaidagree_9.30.04.pdf. Accessed November 27, 2006.

M.C.L. §§ 418.161(g), 30.411 Sec. 11(1)(b)-(c).

Maryland Code Ann., Public Safety §§ 14-3A-03(c), 14-3A-08 (Supp. 2004).

Massachusetts General Laws Annals. ch. 112, § 12B, ch. 111C, § 20 (West 2003).

Mid-America Alliance: Mutual Assistance for Public Health Preparedness (2005). Available at: http://app1.unmc.edu/midameria.  Accessed November 27, 2006.

The New York “Human Rights Law,” New York Executive Law Art. 15 §290 et seq.

Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. § 201 et seq.  (2006).

Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, 42 U.S.C. § 247d. 2003.

The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. §§ 5121-5206 (2002).

The Uniform Emergency Healthcare Services Act § 7(c). In press.

University of Maryland Center for Health and Homeland Security. Maryland Public Health Emergency Preparedness Legal Handbook, 2005:31.

The White House. The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned, 2006:58. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned/. Accessed November 27, 2006.

Chapter 4. Prehospital Care

Avitzour M, Libergal M, Assaf J, et al. A multicasualty event: out-of-hospital and in-hospital organizational aspects. Academic Emergency Medicine 2004;11:1102-4.

Briggs SM, Brinsfield KH. Advanced Disaster Medical Response Manual for Providers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Medical International Trauma & Disaster; 2003.

Christen HT, Maniscalco PM. The EMS Incident Management System—EMS Operations for Mass Casualty and High Impact Incidents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Brady —Prentice Hall; 1998.

Christen HT, Maniscalco PM. Mass Casualty and High Impact Incidents: An Operations Guide. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Brady —Prentice Hall; 2002.

de Boer J. An attempt at more accurate estimation of the number of ambulances needed at disasters in the The Netherlands. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1996;11:125-8.

de Boer J, Debacker M. A more rational approach to medical disaster management applied retrospectively to the Enschede fireworks disaster, 13 May 2000. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2003;10:117-23.

Dow AA, Clark WE, Farmer JC, et al. Disaster management. Organizations and academic perspective. Critical Care Clinics 1991;7:257-70.

Doyle CJ. Mass casualty incident. Integration with prehospital care. Emergency Medical Clinics of North America 1990;8:163-75.

Farmer CJ, Jimenez EJ, Talmor D, Zimmerman JL. Fundamentals of Disaster Management. Des Plains, IL: Society of Critical Medicine; 2003.

Farmer JC, Carlton PK, Jr. Providing critical care during a disaster: the interface between disaster response agencies and hospitals. Critical Care Medicine 2006;34(3 Suppl):S56-S59.

Fenn J, Rega P, Stavros M, Buderer NF. Assessment of U.S. helicopter emergency medical services' planning and readiness for disaster response. Air Medical Journal 1999;18:12-5.

Fitzgerald DJ, Sztajnkrycer MD, Crocco TJ. Chemical weapon functional exercise —Cincinnati: observations and lessons learned from a “typical medium-sized” city's response to simulated terrorism utilizing weapons of mass destruction. Public Health Report 2003;118:205-14.

Flowers LK, Mothershead JL, Blackwell TH. Bioterrorism preparedness II: The community and emergency medical services systems. Emergency Medical Clinics of North America 2002;20:457-76.

Graham CA, Hearns ST. Major incidents: training for on site medical personnel. Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine 1999;16:336-8.

Grissom TE, Farmer JC. The provision of sophisticated critical care beyond the hospital: lessons from physiology and military experiences that apply to civil disaster medical response. Critical Care Medicine 2005;33(1 Suppl):S13-S21.

Jacobs LM, Gabram SG, Stohler SA. The integration of a helicopter emergency medical service in a mass casualty response system. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1991;6:451-4.

Key CB. Operational issues in EMS. Emergency Medical Clinics of North America 2002;20:913-27.

Maningas PA, Robison M, Mallonee S. The EMS response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1997;12:80-5.

Maniscalco PM, Christen HT. Public Health Guide for Emergencies, First Edition. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health and The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies; 2000.

Maniscalco PM, Christen HT. Understanding Terrorism and Managing its Consequences. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Brady —Prentice Hall; 2001.

Martchenke J, Rusteen J, Pointer JE. Prehospital Communications during the Loma Prieta earthquake. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1995;10:225-31.

Martchenke J, Lynch T, Pointer J, Rooker N. Aeromedical helicopter use following the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 1995;66:359-63.

Palafox J, Pointer JE, Martchenke J, Kleinrock M, Michaelis J. The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake: issues in medical control. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1993;8:291-7.

Peleg K, Michaelson M, Shapira SC, Aharonson-Daniel L. Principles of emergency management in disasters. Advances in Renal Replacement Therapy 2003;10:117-21.

Prezant DJ, Clair J, Belyaev S, et al. Effects of the August 2003 blackout on the New York City healthcare delivery system: a lesson for disaster preparedness. Critical Care Medicine 2005;33(1 Suppl):S96-S101.

Risavi BL, Salen PN, Heller MB, Arcona S. A two-hour intervention using START improves prehospital triage of mass casualty incidents. Prehospital Emergency Care 2001;5:197-9.

Stohler SA, Jacobs LM, Gabram SG. Roles of a helicopter emergency medical service in mass casualty incidents. Journal of Air Medical Transport 1991;10:7-13.

Thomas SH, Harrison T, Wedel SK, Thomas DP. Helicopter emergency medical services roles in disaster operations. Prehospital Emergency Care 2000;4:338-44.

U.S. Agency for International Development for Humanitarian Response (USAID), Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance. Field Operations Guide for Disaster Assessment and Response, v. 3.0. Washington: USAID; 1998.

Walsh DW, Christen HT, Miller GT, Callsen CE, Cilluffo FJ, Maniscalco PM. National Incident Management System: Principles and Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers; 2005.

Withers MR, Christopher GW. Aeromedical evacuation of biological warfare casualties: a treatise on infectious diseases on aircraft. Military Medicine 2000;165(11 Suppl):1-21.

Chapter 5. Hospital/Acute Care

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events: Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; April 2005. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altstand/.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Health Emergency Assistance Line and Triage Hub (HEALTH) Model. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; March 2005. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/health/.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Rocky Mountain Regional Care Model for Bioterrorist Events: Locate Alternate Care Sites During an Emergency. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; December 2004. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altsites.htm.

Aiken LH, Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Sochalski J, Silber JH. Hospital nurse staffing and patient mortality, nurse burnout, and job dissatisfaction. JAMA 2002;288(16):1987-93.

Alexander GC, Werner RM, Ubel PA. The costs of denying scarcity. Archives of Internal Medicine 2004;164(6):593-596.

Alexander GC, Wynia MK. Ready and willing? Physicians' sense of preparedness for bioterrorism. Health Affairs 2003;22(5):189-97.

American College of Emergency Physicians. Code of ethics for emergency physicians. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1997;30:365-72.

American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP). The duty to respond to out-of-hospital emergencies and disasters. ACEP 2006 Policy Compendium. Dallas: ACEP; 2006;35(3)(d).

American Hospital Association. Hospital Preparedness for Mass Casualties. August 2000. Available at: http://aharc.library.net/

American Medical Association Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs. Ethical considerations in the allocation of organs and other scarce medical resources among patients. Archives of Internal Medicine 1995;155:29-40.

Barbera J, Macintyre A. Medical and Health Incident Management System: A Comprehensive Functional System Description for Mass Casualty Medical and Health Incident Management. Washington: George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management; December 2002. Available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~icdrm.

Barbera J, McIntyre A. Medical Surge Capacity and Capability: A Management System for Integrating Medical and Health Resources During Large-Scale Emergencies. Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation; August 2004. Available at: http://www.cna.org/documents/mscc_aug2004.pdf.

Barbisch DF. Surge Capacity: Seamless Emergency Medical Logistics Expansion System. Presented at the National Disaster Medical System Conference, Dallas; 2004. Available at: http://ndms.chepinc.org/data/files/3/142.pdf.

Benson M et al. Disaster triage: START, the SAVE. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 1996;11:117-24.

Center for Law and the Public's Health —Georgetown and Johns Hopkins Universities. Turning Point State Legislative Update Table. Available at: http://www.publichealthlaw.net/Resources/Modellaws.htm#TP.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tiered use of inactivated influenza vaccine in the event of a vaccine shortage. MMWR Weekly 2005;54:749-50.

Cheung TMT et al. Effectiveness of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome. Chest 2004;126:845-50.

Church J. Modular Emergency Medical System —Expanding Local Healthcare Structure in a Mass Casualty Terrorism Event. Washington: Department of Defense; June 1, 2002. Available at: http://www.nnemmrs.org/resources/index.html. Exit Disclaimer

Clarke SP, Sloane DM, Aiken LH. Effects of hospital staffing and organizational climate on needlestick injuries to nurses. American Journal of Public Health 2002;92(7):1115-9.

CNN.com. Sniper Fire Halts Hospital Evacuation: Gunmen fire at medical workers and patients at Charity Hospital. September 1, 2005. Available at: http://www.cnn.com/2005/WEATHER/09/01/katrina.hospital.sniper/index.html.

Cone DC, Koenig KL. Mass casualty triage in the chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear environment. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 2005;12(6):287-302.

Cone DC, MacMillan DS. Mass-casualty triage systems: a hint of science. Academic Emergency Medicine 2005;12(8):739-41.

Cook R, Cook D, Tilley J, Lee K, Marshall J; Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. Multiple organ dysfunction: baseline and serial component scores. Critical Care Medicine 2001;29(11):2046-50.

Dacey MJ. Tragedy and response —the Rhode Island Nightclub Disaster. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;349:1990-1.

Daniels N. Accountability for reasonableness. British Medical Journal 2000;321:1300-1301.

Daniels N. Am I My Patient's Keeper? An Essay on Justice Between the Young and Old. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Daniels N, Sabin J. Setting Limits Fairly: Can We Learn to Share Scarce Medical Resources?. New York: Oxford University Press; 2002.

Derse AR. Law and ethics in emergency medicine. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 1999;17(2):307-25.

Diaz GG et al. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat hypercapnic coma secondary to respiratory failure. Chest 2005;127;952-60.

Emanuel EJ, Wertheimer A. Public health. Who should get influenza vaccine when not all can? Science 2006;312:854-5.

Eschun GM, Jacobsohn E, Roberts D, Sneiderman B. Ethical and practical considerations of withdrawal of treatment in the intensive care unit. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1999;46(5):497-504.

Federal Emergency Management Agency. National Incident Management System. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/index.shtm.

Gomersall CD, Tai DY, Loo S, Derrick JL, Goh MS, Buckley TA, Chua C, Ho KM, Raghavan GP, Ho OM, Lee LB, Joynt GM. Expanding ICU facilities in an epidemic: recommendations based on experience from the SARS epidemic in Hong Kong and Singapore. Intensive Care Medicine 2006;30:381-7.

Goold SD. Allocating health care: cost-utility analysis, informed democratic decision-making, or the veil of ignorance? Journal of Health Politics, Policy, and Law 1996;21:68-97.

Gostin LO, Saprin JW, Teret SP, et al. The model State emergency health powers act. JAMA 2002;288:622-28.

Greater New York Hospital Association. Hospital Resources for Preparedness and Response. Available at: http://www.gnyha.org/eprc/general/ics/. Exit Disclaimer

Greater New York Hospital Association. Security Planning Information for Hospitals. Available at: http://www.gnyha.org/eprc/general/security/. Exit Disclaimer

Grow R, Rubinson L. The challenges of hospital infection control in response to bioterrorist attacks. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2003;1:215-20.

Health Resources and Services Administration. Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program 2006 Grant Guidance. 2008 version available at: http://www.hhs.gov/aspr/opeo/hpp/.

Herridge MS. Prognostication and intensive care unit outcome: the evolving role of scoring systems. Clinics in Chest Medicine 2003;24(4):751-62.

Hick JL, Hanfling D, Burstein JL, DeAtely C, Barbisch D, Bogdan G, Cantrill S. Healthcare facility and community strategies for patient care surge capacity. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2004;44:253-61.

Hick JL, O'Laughlin DT. Concept of operations for triage of mechanical ventilation in an epidemic. Academic Emergency Medicine 2006:13(2):223-9. Available at: http://www.aemj.org/cgi/content/full/13/2/223.

Iserson KV. Principles of biomedical ethics. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 1999;17(2):283-306.

Iserson KV, Pesik N. Ethical resource distribution after biological, chemical, or radiological terrorism. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2003;12:455-65.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Disaster privileging standard. Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. Medical Staff Section MS.5.14.4.1. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: JCAHO; January 1, 2003.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Healthcare at the Crossroads: Strategies for Creating and Sustaining Community-Wide Emergency Preparedness Systems. Oak Terrace, IL: JCAHO; 2004.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Surge Hospitals: Providing Safe Care in Emergencies. Chicago: JACHO; 2006. Available at: http://www.jcrinc.com/generic.asp?durki=11627&site=11&return=http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altstand/405.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). The 2001 Joint Commission Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals. EC 1.4 and 1.6 (rev). Oakbrook Terrace, IL: JCAHO; 2001.

Karnofsky DA. The use of nitrogen mustards in the palliative treatment of carcinoma. Cancer 1948;1:634.

Katz S. Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA 1963;185:914.

Kelen, G. Reverse triage: criteria for immediate inpatient disposition for creation of hospital surge capacity (abstract, 14th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine). Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2006;20(S1):S9-S10. Available at: http://pdm.medicine.wisc.edu/20-2%20PDFs/aedinburgh.pdf.

Koenig KL, Cone DC, Burstein JL, Camargo CA, Jr. Surging to the right standard of care. Academic Emergency Medicine 2006;13(2):195-8.

Koenig KL, Dinerman N, Kuehl AE. Disaster nomenclature —a functional approach: the PICE system. Academy of Emergency Medicine 1996;3(7):723-7.

Koenig KL, Goans RE, Hatchett RJ, Mettler FA, Jr., Schumacher TA, Noji EK, Jarrett DG. Medical treatment of radiological casualties: current concepts. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2005;45(6):643-52.

Lanzilotti SS, Galanis D, Leoni N, Craig B. Hawaii medical professionals assessment. Hawaii Medical Journal 2002;61(8):162-73.

Larkin GL, Arnold J. Ethical considerations in emergency planning, preparedness, and response to acts of terrorism. Prehospital & Disaster Medicine 2003;18(3):170-78.

Larson EB. Scribner's legacy serves public good. Seattle Post-Intelligencer. July 9, 2003. Available at: http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/129982_scribner09.html.

Lemeshow S et al. Modeling the severity of illness in ICU patients: a systems update. JAMA 1994;272:1049-55.

Lemeshow S et al. Mortality probability models based on an international cohort of intensive care unit patients. JAMA 1993;270:2478-86.

Lemeshow S et al. Mortality probability models for patients in the intensive care unit for 48 or 72 hours: a prospective, multicenter study. Critical Care Medicine 1994;22:1351-8.

MacVittie TJ. Therapy of radiation injury. Stem Cells 1997;15(Suppl 2):263-8.

Marshall JC, Cook DJ, Christou NV, et al. Multiple organ dysfunction score: a reliable descriptor of a complex clinical outcome. Critical Care Medicine 1995;23:1638-52.

McKneally MF, Dickens BM, Meslin EM, Singer PA. Bioethics for clinicians: 13. Resource allocation. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1997;157(2):163-7.

Minnesota Department of Health (MDH). State/regional/local patient care responsibilities defined and outlined. Patient Care Coordination Planning Guide. Available on CD by request to the MDH Office of Emergency Preparedness: oep@health.state.mn.us.

Monchi M, Bellenfant F, Cariou A, Joly LM, Thebert D, Laurent I, Dhainaut JF, Brunet F. Early predictive factors of survival in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. A multivariate analysis. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1998;158(4):1076-81.

Moreno R, Vincent JL, Matos R, Mendonca A, et al. The use of maximum SOFA score to quantify organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care. Results of a prospective, multicentre study. Intensive Care Medicine 1999;25(7);686-96.

Needleman J, Buerhaus P, Mattke S, Stewart M, Zelevinsky K. Nurse-staffing levels and the quality of care in hospitals. New England Journal of Medicine 2002;346(22):1715-22.

Nickell LA, Crighton EJ, Tracy CS, Al-Enazy H, Bolaji Y, Hanjrah S, Hussain A, Makhlouf S, Upshur RE. Psychosocial effects of SARS on hospital staff: survey of a large tertiary care institution. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004;170(5):793-8.

Peres Bota D, Melot C, Lopes Ferreira F, Nguyen Ba, Vincent JL. The multiple organ dysfunction score (MODS) versus the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score in outcome prediction. Intensive Care Medicine 2002;28(11):1619-24.

Pesik N, Keim ME, Iserson KV. Terrorism and the ethics of emergency medical care. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2001;37(6):642-6.

Peters MJ, Tasker RC, Kiff KM, Yates R, Hatch DJ. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in children: case mix and the utility of respiratory severity indices. Intensive Care Medicine 1998;24(7):699-705.

Pettila V, Pettila M, Sarna S, Voutilainen P, Takkunen O. Comparison of multiple organ dysfunction scores in the prediction of hospital mortality in the critically ill. Critical Care Medicine August 2002;30(8):1705-11.

Posner Z. Admi H. Menashe N. Ten-fold expansion of a burn unit in mass casualty: how to recruit the nursing staff. Disaster Management & Response 2003;1(4):100-4.

Public Engagement Pilot Project on Pandemic Influenza. Citizen Voices on Pandemic Flu Choices. Washington: National Academy Press; 2005.

Qureshi K, Gershon RR, Sherman MF, Straub T, Gebbie E, McCollum M, Erwin MJ, Morse SS. Health care workers' ability and willingness to report to duty during catastrophic disasters. Journal of Urban Health 2005;82(3):378-88.

Rizzo A, Colonel, USAF, MC, SFS Chief, Operations Division NORAD-USNORTHCOM/SG. Deployable Oxygen Solutions for FEMA. Briefing. Available at: http://www.denverhealth.org/bioterror/Document/DH2SupplyStaffing10-30-03.pdf  (Appendix A).

Roccaforte JD. The World Trade Center attack. Observations from New York's Bellevue Hospital. Critical Care 2001;5(6):307-9.

Rubinson L, Branson R, Pesik N, Talmor D. Positive pressure ventilation equipment for mass casualty respiratory failure. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2006;4:1-12.

Rubinson L, Nuzzo JB, Talmor DS, O'Toole T, Kramer BR, Inglesby TV. Augmentation of hospital critical care capacity after bioterrorist attacks or epidemics: recommendations of the Working Group on Emergency Mass Critical Care. Critical Care Medicine 2005;33(10):2393-403.

Sacco WJ, Navin DM, Fiedler KE, Waddell RK II, Long WB, Buckman RF, Jr. Precise formulation and evidence-based application of resource-constrained triage. Academic Emergency Medicine 2005;12(8):759-70.

Saffle JR, Gibran N, Jordan M. Defining the ratio of outcomes to resources for triage of burn patients in mass casualties. Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation 2005;26(6):478-82.

San Mateo County Emergency Medical Services Agency. Hospital Emergency Incident Command System III—January, 1998. Available at: http://www.heics.com.

Sever MS, Vanholder R, Lameire N. Management of crush-related injuries after disasters. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(10):1052-63.

Skidmore S, Wall W, Church J. Modular Emergency Medical System Concept of Operation for the Acute Care Center: Mass Casualty Strategy for a Biological Terror Incident. U.S. Department of the Army, Soldier and Biological Chemical Command. May 2003. Available at: http://www.nnemmrs.org/resources/index.html. Exit Disclaimer

Society of Critical Care Medicine Ethics Committee. Attitudes of critical care medicine professionals concerning distribution of intensive care resources. Critical Care Medicine 1994;22:358-62.

Society of Critical Care Medicine Ethics Committee. Consensus statement on the triage of critically ill patients. JAMA 1994;271:1200-3.

State of Minnesota, Office of the Revisor of Statutes. Minnesota Statutes 2006, Chapter 12, 12.03 (Definitions). St. Paul: State of Minnesota; 2006. Available at: http://ros.leg.mn/bin/getpub.php?pubtype=STAT_CHAP_SEC&year=current&section=12.03.

Tanabe P, Gimbel R, Yarnold PR, Kyriacou DN, Adams JG. Reliability and validity of scores on The Emergency Severity Index version 3. Academic Emergency Medicine 2004;11(1):59-65.

Tanabe P, Travers D, Gilboy N, Rosenau A, Sierzega G, Rupp V, Martinovich Z, Adams JG. Refining Emergency Severity Index triage criteria. Academic Emergency Medicine 2005;12(6):497-501.

Tauber AI. A philosophical approach to rationing. Medical Journal of Australia 2003:178(9):454-6.

Trachsel D, McCrindle BW, Nakagawa S, Bohn D. Oxygenation index predicts outcome in children with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 2005;172(2):206-11.

Turai I, Veress K, Gunalp B, Souchkevitch G. Medical response to radiation incidents and radionuclear threats. British Medical Journal 2004;328:568-72.

University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, Pandemic Influenza Working Group. Stand on Guard for Thee: Ethical Considerations in Preparedness; November 2005.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance: Emergency Use Authorization of Medical Products. Washington: HHS; June 2005. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/oc/bioterrorism/emergency_use.html.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan. S3-III (A)(2)(h). Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/pandemicflu/plan/.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Hurricane Katrina: Waiver Under Section 1135 of the Social Security Act. September 4, 2005. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/katrina/ssawaiver.html.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Disaster Medical System. Available at: http://ndms.dhhs.gov/.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pandemic Influenza Plan, Appendix D: NVAC/ACIP Recommendations for Prioritization of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine and NVAC Recommendations on Pandemic Antiviral Drug Use. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/pandemicflu/plan/appendixd.html.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). ESAR-VHP: Interim Technical and Policy Guidelines, Standards, and Definitions, v. 2. June 2005.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency. Continuity of Operations (COOP) Programs. Available at: http://www.fema.gov/government/coop/index.shtm#0

Van den Bos K, Lind EA, Vermunt R, Wilke H. How do I judge my outcome when I do not know the outcome of others? The psychology of the fair process effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1997;72(5):1034-46.

Venkataraman ST, Khan N, Brown A. Validation of predictors of extubation success and failure in mechanically ventilated infants and children. Critical Care Medicine 2000;28(8):2991-6.

Vincent JL, Mendonca A, Cantraine F, et al. Use of the SOFA score to assess the incidence of organ dysfunction/failure in intensive care units: results of a multicenter, prospective study. Critical Care Medicine 1998;26(11):1793-800.

Vincent JL, Moreno R, Takala J, et al. The SOFA (sepsis-related organ failure assessment) score to describe organ dysfunction/failure. Intensive Care Medicine 1996;22:707-10.

Wennberg JE, Fisher ES, Sharp SM, McAndrew M, Bronner KK (for the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care Working Group). The Care of Patients with Severe Chronic Illness: An Online Report on the Medicare Program by the Dartmouth Atlas Project. Hanover, NH: The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care; 2006. Available at: http://www.dartmouthatlas.org/atlases/2006_Chronic_Care_Atlas.pdf.

Chapter 6. Alternative Care Sites

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Reopening Shuttered Hospitals to Expand Surge Capacity. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; March 2006. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/shuttered/. Accessed July 21, 2006.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Rocky Mountain Regional Care Model for Bioterrorist Events: Locate Alternate Care Sites During an Emergency. Rockville, MD: AHRQ; December 2004. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/altsites.htm. Accessed July 21, 2006.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Alternative Care Site Selection Tool from Rocky Mountain Regional Care Model for Bioterrorist Events. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/biotertools/alttool.xls. Accessed July 21, 2006.

Barbera J, Macintyre A. Medical and Health Incident Management System: A Comprehensive Functional System Description for Mass Casualty Medical and Health Incident Management. Washington: George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management; December 2002. Available at: http://www.gwu.edu/~icdrm. Accessed July 21, 2006.

Church J. Mass Casualty Strategy for Biological Terror Incidents: Neighborhood Emergency Help Center. SBCCOM Department of the Army; May 2001. Available at: http://www.nnemmrs.org/resources/index.html. Exit Disclaimer Accessed August 22, 2008.

Church J. Mass Casualty Strategy for Biological Terror Incidents: Acute Care Center. SBCCOM Department of the Army; December 2001. Available at: http://www.nnemmrs.org/resources/index.html. Exit Disclaimer Accessed August 22, 2008.

Hick JL, Hanfling D, Burstein JL, DeAtely C, Barbisch D, Bogdan G, Cantrill S. Healthcare facility and community strategies for patient care surge capacity. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2004;44:253-61.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Facilities (JCAHO). Surge Hospitals: Providing Safe Care in Emergencies. Chicago: JCAHO; 2006.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Facilities (JCAHO). Faith-based Organizations as Partners in Emergency Management Planning, Response, and Recovery. Chicago: JCAHO; 2005.

Lanzilotti SS. Hawaii Medical Personnel Assessment 2003: A Longitudinal Study of Hawaii Doctors and Nurses, Their Knowledge, Skill, and Willingness to Treat Victims Related to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Naturally Caused Mass Casualty Incidents. Honolulu: Honolulu Emergency Services Department; October 2004.

Trabert E, Giovachino M, et al. After Action Review of Federal Medical Station (FMS) Operations During Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Washington: Department of Health and Human Services; 2006.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Emergency Systems for Advance Registration of Volunteer health Professionals (ESAR-VHP) Program: Interim Technical and Policy Guidelines, Standards and Definitions, v. 2. Rockville, MD: HRSA; June 2005.

Chapter 7. Palliative Care

Alexander D. Nature's impartiality, man's inhumanity: reflections on terrorism and world crisis in a context of historical disaster. Disasters 2002;26(1):1-9.

Anonymous. Abstracts from the 14th World Congress for Disaster and Emergency Medicine. May 16-20, 2005. Edinburgh, Scotland. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 2005;20(3):s113-s151.

Anonymous. Elderly most in danger as hurricane strikes. SeniorJournal.com. September 2004. Available at: http://www.seniorjournal.com. Accessed July 12, 2006.

Anonymous. Louisiana nursing homes now vacated, many elderly feared dead. SeniorJournal.com. September 5, 2006. Available at: http://www.seniorjournal.com/NEWS/Eldercare/5-09-06NurseHomeRescue.htm. Accessed April 27, 2006.

Anonymous. More nursing home bodies being found after hurricane. SeniorJournal.com. September 16, 2005. Available at: http://www.seniorjournal.com/NEWS/Eldercare/5-09-16MoreBodies.htm. Accessed July 12, 2006.

Bankoff G. Rendering the world unsafe: "vulnerability" as Western discourse. Disasters 2001;25(1):19-35.

Bauman A. Amidst hurricanes, blackouts, and floods.... how prepared is your hospice? Insights. September 2005:14-17.

Bierce A. The coup de grace. In: Ingram J, David C, eds. The Collected Works of Ambrose Bierce, Vol. II: In the Midst of Life: Tales of Soldiers and Civilians. San Francisco: PG Distributed Proofreaders; 2005.

Black R. Ethical codes in humanitarian emergencies: from practice to research? Disasters 2003;27(2):95-108.

Brown V, Jacquier G, Coulombier D, Balandine S, Belanger F, Legros D. Rapid assessment of population size by area sampling in disaster situations. Disasters 2001;25(2):164-71.

Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. National strategy for pandemic influenza and the HHS Pandemic Influenza Plan: thoughts and comments. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism: Biodefense and Strategy, Practice, and Science 2005;3(4):292-4.

Domres B. The challenge of crisis. Pain Practice 2003;3(1):97-9.

Domres B, Manger A, Steigerwald I, Esser S. The challenge of crisis, disaster, and war: experience with UN and NGOs. Pain Practice 2003;3(1):97-100.

Dyer BC. The Impact of Natural Disaster on Older Adults: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina. American Geriatrics Society 2006 Annual Scientific Meeting.

Edwards JCP, Stapley J, Akins R. Regional Strategies to Prepare for Public Health Disasters in Texas Offer Lessons About Community Resource Allocation. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005.

Health Systems Research, Inc. Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty. Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies. Rockville, MD:Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2005.

Hearne SA, Segals LM, Earls MJ. Ready or Not? Protecting the Public's Health from Diseases, Disasters, and Bioterrorism. Washington: Trust for America's Health, 2005.

Hersey J. Hiroshima. The New Yorker. August 31, 1946.

Homan P. Responding to crisis: a bereavement perspective. Insights 2005:35-37.

Homeland Security Council. National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza. Washington: Homeland Security Council; 2005.

Hooke WR, Rogers PG. Public Health Risks of Disasters: Communication, Infrastructure and Preparedness —Workshop Summary. Washington: National Institute of Medicine; 2005.

Institute of Medicine. Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism: A Public Health Strategy. Washington: National Academies Press; 2003. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309089530/html. Exit Disclaimer Accessed July 12, 2006.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Standing Together: An Emergency Planning Guide for America's Communities. Chicago: JCAHO; 2005.

Light PC. The Katrina Effect on American Preparedness. New York: New York University Press; 2005.

McGough MF, Leer L, Tipton S, Tinker TL, Vaughn E. Communicating the risks of bioterrorism and other emergencies in a diverse society: a case study of special populations in North Dakota. Biosecurity and BioTerrorism: Biodefense Strategy, Practice, and Science 2005;3(3):235-45.

National Center for Disaster Preparedness (NCDP) at Columbia's Mailman School of Public Health. More than $5 billion spent on bioterrorism preparedness, but Americans remain deeply concerned about safety and a majority lack confidence in government and health system to respond effectively. NCDP Web site. September 8, 2003. Available at: http://www.ncdp.mailman.columbia.edu/files/press_release.pdf. Accessed July 12, 2006.

National Defense Medical System (NDMS). Report on the National Disaster Medical System 2005 Hurricane Response. Reno, NV: NDMS; 2006.

Orr, R. D. “Ethical Issues in Bioterrorism.” Bioterrorism E-mail module #12, 2003. Retrieved April 27, 2006.

Pan American Health Organization. Management of Dead Bodies in Disaster Situations. Washington: Pan American Health Organization; 2004.

Pan American Health Organization. Management of Dead Bodies After Disasters: A Field Manual for First Responders. Washington: Pan American Health Organization; 2006.

Penner NR. Understanding the role of today's relief agencies and how best to work with them. Insights 2005:30-34.

Perry RW, Lindell MK. Preparedness for emergency response: guidelines for the emergency planning process. Disasters 2003;27(4):336-50.

Pupavac V. Therapeutic governance: psychosocial intervention and trauma risk management. Disasters 2001;25(4):358-72.

Rioux P. St. Rita's owners say no help offered before Katrina hit. SeniorJournal.com. April 27, 2006. Available at: http://www.seniorjournal.com/NEWS/Eldercare/5-09-15StRitaNoHelp.htm. Accessed July 12, 2006.

Roy M. Ten Steps in the Management of Biological Casualties on the Battlefield. USAMRIID's Medical Management of Biological Casualties. Frederick, MD: U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases; 2001.

Saliba D, Buchanan J, Kingston RS. Disaster preparedness for vulnerable populations: the disabled, seriously ill or frail elderly. American Journal of Public Health 2002;94:1436-41.

Saliba DM, Buchanan J, Kington RS. Function and response of nursing facilities during community disaster. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94(8):1436-41.

Spiegel PB, Sheik M, Woodruff BA, Burnham G. The accuracy of mortality reporting in displaced persons camps during the post-emergency phase. Disasters 2001;25(2):172-80.

Stanford University. The influenza pandemic of 1918. Stanford University Web site. Available at: http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/uda/index.html. Accessed July 12, 2006.

Stoto M. Measuring Public Health Preparedness. Presented at the RAND Performance Measurement Seminar, Center for Domestic and International Health Security, Washington, May 18, 2006.

U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). National Response Plan. Washington: DHS; 2004.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Mental Health All-Hazards Disaster Planning Guidance. DHHS Pub. No. SMA 3829. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2003.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Mental Health Response to Mass Violence and Terrorism: A Training Manual. DHHS Pub. No. SMA 3959. Rockville, MD: Center for Mental Health Services, Substance Abuse and mental Health Services Administration; 2004.

U.S. Naval Reserve Commission. Dirty bombs. Backgrounder. April 2005:1-6.

U.S. Naval Reserve Commission. Dirty Bombs. Washington: Office of Population Affairs; 2006.

Viboud C. Interregional spread of influenza through United States described by virus type, size of population and commuting rates and distance. NIH News. April 19, 2006. Available at: http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/apr2006/fic-19.htm. Accessed July 12, 2006.

World Health Organization (WHO). Avian influenza —fact sheet. WHO Web site. January 15, 2004. Available at: http://www.who.int/topics/avian_influenza/en/. Exit Disclaimer Accessed July 12, 2006.

Wein LM, Craft DL. Evaluation of public health interventions for anthrax: a report to the Secretary's Council on Public Health Preparedness. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism; Biodefense and Strategy, Practice, and Science 2005;3(4):348-56.

Chapter 8.  Influenza Pandemic Case Study

American College of Physicians. The Health Care Response to Pandemic Influenza. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;145(2):135-7.

Bartlett, John G. Planning for Avian Influenza. Annals of Internal Medicine 2006;145(2):141-4.

Gostin, Lawrence. Public Health Strategies for Pandemic Influenza. JAMA 2006:295:1700-4.

Institute of Medicine. Hospital-based Emergency Care: At the Breaking Point. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.

Osterhold MT. Preparing for the next pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine 2005;352(18):1839-42.

World Health Organization. Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/index.html. Exit Disclaimer Accessed July 20, 2006.

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