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Pediatric Terrorism and Disaster Preparedness

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

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Chapter 5. Chemical Terrorism (continued)

Bibliography

Introduction

American Academy of Pediatrics: Chemical and biological terrorism and its impact on children; a subject review. Pediatrics 2000;105:662-70.

Brennan RJ, Waeckerle JF, Sharp T, et al. Chemical warfare agents: emergency medical and emergency public health issues. Ann Emerg Med 1999;34:191-204.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Chemical Agents. Available at: http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlistchem.asp. Accessed July 20, 2006.

Erickson TB. Toxicology: ingestions and smoke inhalation. In: Gausche-Hill M, Fuchs S, Yamamoto L (eds). APLS The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Resource, 4th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Emergency Medicine. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2004. p. 234-267.

Henretig FM, Cieslak TJ, Madsen JM, et al. The emergency department response to incidents of biological and chemical terrorism. In: Fleisher GF, Ludwig S, Henretig FM, ed. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.

Henretig FM. Biological and chemical terrorism defense: a view from the "front lines" of public health. Am J Public Health 2001;91:718-20.

Henretig FM, Cieslak TJ, Eitzen EM Jr. Biological and chemical terrorism. J Pediatr 2002;141:311-26.

Henretig FM, McKee MR. Preparedness for acts of nuclear, biological and chemical terrorism. In: Gausche-Hill M, Fuchs S, Yamamoto L (eds). APLS The Pediatric Emergency Medicine Resource, 4th ed. American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Emergency Medicine. Sudbury MA: Jones and Bartlett; 2004. p. 568-91.

Kales SN, Christiani DC. Acute chemical emergencies. N Engl J Med 2004;350:800-8.

Macintyre AG, Christopher GW, Eitzen E Jr, et al. Weapons of mass destruction events with contaminated casualties: effective planning for health care facilities. JAMA 2000;283:242-9.

Okumura T, Takasu N, Ishimatasu S, et al. Report on 640 victims of the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Ann Emerg Med 1996;28: p.129-35.

Osterhoudt KC, Ewald, MB, Shannon M, Henretig FM. Toxicologic emergencies. In: Fleisher GF, Ludwig S, Henretig FM (eds). Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005.

U.S.Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chemical Casualties, 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense; 1999.

Nerve Agents

Amitai Y, Almog S, Singer R, et al. Atropine poisoning in children during the Persian Gulf crisis. A national survey in Israel. JAMA 1992;268:630-2.

Holstege CP, Kirk M, Sidell FR. Chemical warfare: nerve agent poisoning. Crit Care Clin 1997;13:923-42.

Lee EC. Clinical manifestations of sarin nerve gas exposure. JAMA 2003; 290:659-62.

McDonough JH Jr, Shih TM. Neuropharmacological mechanisms of nerve agent-induced seizure and neuropathology. Neurosci Behav Rev 1997;15:559-79.

Okumura T, Takasu N, Ishimatsu S, et al. Report on 640 victims of the Tokyo subway sarin attack. Ann Emerg Med 1996;28:129-35.

Rotenberg JS, Newmark J. Nerve agent attacks on children: diagnosis and management. Pediatrics 2003;112:648-58.

Sidell FR, Borak J. Chemical warfare agents: II. nerve agents. Ann Emerg Med 1992;21:865-71.

Sofer S, Tal A, Shahak E. Carbamate and organophosphate poisoning in early childhood. Pediatr Emerg Care 1989;5:222-5.

US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chemical Casualties-Handbook. Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD: US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense; 1999.

Cyanide

Berlin CM. The treatment of cyanide poisoning in children. Pediatrics 1970;46:793-6.

Beasley DMG, Glass WI. Cyanide poisoning: pathophysiology and treatment recommendations. Occup Med 1998;48:427-31.

Sauer SW, Keim ME. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters. Ann Emerg Med 2001;37;635-41.

Kerns W II, Isom G, Kirk MA. Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide. In: Goldfrank LR, Flomenbaum NE, Lewin NA, Howland MA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (eds): Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies, 7th ed. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange; 2002. p. 1498-510.

Rotenberg JS. Cyanide as a weapon of terror. Pediatr Annals 2003;32:236-40.

Sidell FR. What to do in case of an unthinkable chemical warfare attack or accident. Postgrad Med 1990;88:70-84.

Vesicants

Andreassi L. Chemical warfare and the skin. Int J Dermatol 1991;30.

Armada M, Mendelson M. Chemical terrorism update: vesicants. Emerg Med 2002:34(9):51-7.

Barranco VP. Mustard gas and the dermatologist. Int J Dermatol 1991;30;684-6.

Briggs SM, Brinsfield KH. Advanced Disaster Medical Response. Manual for Providers. Boston, MA: Harvard Medical International Trauma and Disaster Institute, 2003.

Hu H, Cook-Deegan R, Shukri A. The use of chemical weapons: conducting an investigation using survey epidemiology. JAMA 1989;262;640-3.

Marshall E. Chemical genocide in Iraq? Science 1988;241:1752.

Momeni A, Arminjavaheri M. Skin manifestations of mustard gas in a group of 14 children and teenagers: a clinical study. Int J Dermatol 1994;33:184-7.

Momeni A, Enshaeih S, Meghdadi M, et al. Skin manifestations of mustard gas. Arch Dermatol 1992;128:775-80.

Safarinejad MR, Moosavi SA, Montazeri B. Ocular injuries caused by mustard gas. Diagnosis, treatment, and medical defense. Military Med 2001;166;67-70.

Sidwell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Textbook of Military Medicine Part 1: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare Washington DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 1997.

Smith WJ, Dunn MA. Medical defense against blistering chemical warfare agents. Arch Dermatol 1991;127:1207-13.

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense. Medical Management of Chemical Casualties, 3rd ed. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: US Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense; 2000.

Pulmonary Agents

Bunting H. Clinical Findings in Acute Chlorine Poisoning. In: Respiratory Tract Vol 2. In: Fasciculus on Chemical Warfare Medicine. Washington, DC: Committee on Treatment of Gas Casualties, National Research Council; 1945: 51-60.

Central Intelligence Agency. Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, 1 January through 30 June 2001. Washington,DC Central Intelligence Agency. Available at: https://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/721_reports/jan_jun2001.htm. Accessed August 18, 2006.

Gray EA, Love JW, Arnold JL. CBRNE—Lung-damaging Agents, Phosgene. In: eMedicine: Emergency Medicine (Textbook Online). St. Petersburg, FL: WebMD; June 13, 2006.

Grimaldi JV and Gugliotta G. Chemical plants are feared as targets: views differ on ways to avert catastrophe. The Washington Post, December 16, 2001:A1.

Henretig FM, Cieslak TJ, Madsen JM, et al. The Emergency Department Response to Incidents of Biological and Chemical Terrorism. In: Fleisher GR, Ludwig S, Henretig FM, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2005.

Noltkamper D, O'Malley GF. CBRNE—Lung-damaging Agents, Chlorine. In: eMedicine: Emergency Medicine (Textbook Online). St. Petersburg, FL: WebMD.

Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Chemical Weapons Convention. Available at: http://www.opcw.org/html/glance/index.html.

Sidell FR and Franz DR. Overview: Defense Against the Effects of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 1: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare Washington DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 1997.

Urbanetti JS. Toxic Inhalational Agents. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Textbook of Military Medicine. Part 1: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 1997.

Riot Control Agents

Billmire DF, Robinson NB, Panitch HB, et al. Pepper-spray induced respiratory failure treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Pediatrics 1996;98:961-3.

Park S, Glammons ST. Toxic effects of tear gas on an infant following prolonged exposure. Amer J Dis Child 1972;123:245-7.

Sidell FR. Riot Control Agents. In: Sidell FR, Takafuji ET, Franz DR, eds. Textbook of Military Medicine: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare Washington DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Walter Reed Army Medical Center; 1997. p. 450-76.

Smith J, Greaves I. The use of chemical incapacitant sprays: a review. J Trauma 2002;52:595-600.

Weir E. The health impact of crowd-control agents. CMAJ 2001;164:1889-90.

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