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Medical Examination and Treatment for Victims of Sexual Assault

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Appendix A: Bibliography

Sexual Assault

1. Allen E. After the examination: tracking sexual assault cases through the legal system. J Emerg Nurs 1999 Dec;25(6):569-71.

2. American College of Emergency Physicians. Evaluation and management of the sexually assaulted or sexually abused patient. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau; 1999 Jun. Contract No. 98-0347(P). Available from: American College of Emergency Physicians, Dallas, Texas.

3. American College of Emergency Physicians. Management of the patient with the complaint of sexual assault. Policy Statement #400130. Available at: www.acep.org. Accessed June 1999.

4. American Osteopathic Association. Violence—development of programs to reduce; adopted by the House of Delegates of the American Osteopathic Association (originally in 1991; revised 1996, 2001).

5. American Medical Association. Strategies for the treatment and prevention of sexual assault. Chicago: American Medical Association; 1995.

6. ASTM International. Standard guide for sexual assault investigation, examination, and evidence. American Society for Testing and Materials Committee (E-30) on Forensic Sciences. Available at: www.astm.org.

7. Bauer HM, Mooney D, Larkin H, et al. California's mandatory reporting of domestic violence injuries: does the law go too far or not far enough? West J Med 1999 Aug;171(2):118-24.

8. Batts J. Clinical forensic medicine in the ED: a training video. Charlotte: Carolinas Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine.

9. Bell K. How are emergency departments using sexual assault nurse examiners (SANES) within the ED routine? J Emerg Nurs 1998;24(6):440.

10. Bloom S. Sexual violence: the victim. New directions for mental health services. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2000. p. 63-71.

11. Bowyer L, Dalton M. Female victims of rape and their genital injuries. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997 May;104(5):617-20.

12. Braude M. Violence and women. In: Epps RS and Steward SC, editors. Women's complete healthbook. New York: Delacorte Press; 1995. p. 1-17.

13. Burgess AW, Fawcett J. The comprehensive sexual assault assessment tool. Nurse Pract 1996 Apr;21(4):66, 71-6, 78.

14. California Medical Training Center. Sexual assault evidentiary exam training for health care providers. Available at: web.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medtrng/training/events.html. Sacramento, CA.

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and STDs. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002 May 10;51(RR-6):69-74.

16. Coming together to end sexual assault. Proceedings of the first national sexual violence prevention conference [book on CD-ROM]. Washington, DC; 2000 May.

17. Ciancone AC, Wilson C, Collette R, et al. Sexual assault nurse examiner programs in the United States. Ann Emerg Med 2000 Apr;35(4):353-7.

18. Derhammer F, Lucente V, Reed JF 3rd, Young MJ. Using a SANE interdisciplinary approach to care of sexual assault victims. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 2000 Aug;26(8):488-96.

19. Dwyer BJ. Rape: psychological, medical and forensic aspects of emergency management. Emerg Med Rep 1995;16(12):105-16.

20. Echeburua E, de Corral P, Sarasua B, et al. Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: an experimental study. J Anxiety Disord 1996;10:185-99.

21. Emergency Nurses Association. Position Statement. J Emerg Nurs 1998 Oct;24(5):38A.

22. Fitzgerald NR, Riley KJ. Drug-facilitated rape: looking for the missing pieces. Natl Inst Justice J 2000 Apr; p. 8-15.

23. Foa EB, Dancu CV, Hembree EA, et al. A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. J Consult Clin Psychol 1999 Apr;67(2):194-200.

24. Foa EB, Hearst-Ikeda DD, Perry KJ. Evaluation of a brief cognitive-behavioral program for the prevention f chronic PTSD in recent assault victims. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995 Dec; 63(6):948-55.

25. Foa EB, Rothbaum BO, Riggs DS, et al. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. J Consult Clin Psychol 1991 Oct; 59(5):715-23.

26. Forensic Nursing Services. The SAT/SANE orientation guide. Available at: www.forensicnursing.com.

27. Gaffney DA, Ledray L. Sexual assault examiners and rape crisis advocates: rising to the challenge together. Sex Assault Rep 1999 Nov-Dec;3(2):17-32.

28. Greenfeld L. Sex offenses and offenders. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs. NCJ 163392; 1997 Feb.

29. Hampton HL. Care of the woman who has been raped: correction. N Engl J Med 1997 Jul;337(1):56.

30. Health Education Alliance. Injuries and evidence—sexual assault: documenting the trauma for trial [a video and workbook]. Monterey, CA.

31. Health Education Alliance. Save the evidence, save a life! Sexual assault: the medical-legal exam [a video and workbook]. Monterey, CA.

32. Health Education Alliance. Sexual assault response teams: a training video. Monterey, CA.

33. Heger AH. Evaluation of sexual assault in the emergency department. Top Emerg Med 1999 Jun;21(2):46-57.

34. Hochmeister MN, Whelan M, Borer UV, et al. Effects of toluidine blue and destaining reagents used in sexual assault examinations on the ability to obtain DNA profiles from postcoital vaginal swabs. J Forensic Sci 1997 Mar;42(2):316-9.

35. Hohenhaus S. SANE legislation and lessons learned. Sexual assault nurse examiner. J Emerg Nurs 1998 Oct;24(5):463-4.

36. Houry D, Sachs CJ, Feldhaus KM, Linden J. Violence-inflicted injuries: reporting laws in the fifty states. Ann Emerg Med 2002 Jan;39(1):56-60.

37. Hunter SM, Bentley Crewe BR, Mills JL. Police response to crimes of sexual assault: a training curriculum. Connecticut Sexual Assault Crisis Service, Inc. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Violence Against Women Online Resources. Available at: www.vaw.umn.edu.

38. International Association of Forensic Nurses. Forensic nursing on trial: Virginia judge's decision in sexual assault case places forensic nursing in the forefront of law and medicine [press release]. Pitman: International Association of Forensic Nurses; April 25, 2001. Available at: www.forensicnurse.org.

39. International Association of Forensic Nurses. Scope and standards of forensic nursing practice. Pitman: International Association of Forensic Nurses. Available at: www.forensicnurse.org.

40. International Association of Forensic Nurses. Sexual assault nurse examiner education guidelines. Pitman: International Association of Forensic Nurses; 1997. p. 1-8. Available at: www.forensicnurse.org.

41. Jackman T. When rape is in question, so are nurses' answers. Washington Post, April 2, 2001:B1, B4.

42. Jaeger B. Sexual assault nurse examiners. J Emerg Nurs 1998;24(5):440-1.

43. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). The accreditation manual for hospitals: scoring guidelines. Oakbrook Terrace: JCAHO;1994.

44. Kilpatrick, DG. Risk factors for substance abuse: a longitudinal study. Bethesda (MD): National Institute on Drug Abuse. Grant No.:1R01-DA05220. 4/1/1989-3/31/1993.

45. Kilpatrick DG, Edmunds C. 2000 National Victim Assistance Academy Textbook. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime; 2000. Chapter 10: sexual assault.

46. Kilpatrick DG, Veronen LJ. Treatment for rape-related problems: crisis intervention is not enough. In: Cohen LH, Claiborn WL, Spector GA, editors. Crisis Intervention. 2nd edition. New York: Human Sciences Press; 1983. p. 165-85.

47. Lang KS. Sexual assault nurse examiner resource guide for Michigan communities. Michigan: Michigan coalition against domestic and sexual violence;1999 Sep. p. 1-125.

48. Langan PA, Farrington DP. Crime and justice in the United States and in England and Wales, 1981-96. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 169284; 1998 Oct.

49. LeBeau M, Andollo W, Hearn WL, et al. Recommendations for toxicological investigations of drug-facilitated sexual assaults. J Forensic Sci 1999 Jan;44(1):227-30.

50. Ledray LE. Sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) development & operation guide. Minneapolis: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office for Victims of Crime. NCJ 170609; 1999 Jul.

51. Ledray LE. Forensic evidence collection and care of the sexual assault survivor: the SANESAT response. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. Violence Against Women Online Resources. Available at: www.vaw.umn.edu. Accessed August 2001.

52. Ledray LE, Simmelink K. Efficacy of SANE evidence collection: a Minnesota study. J Emerg Nurs 1997 Feb;23(1):75-7.

53. Ledray LE, Barry L. SANE expert and factual testimony. J Emerg Nurs 1998 Jun;24(3):284-7.

54. Maxwell MS, Soubielle K. Hospital sexual assault needs, issues & recommendations. Sexual assault needs assessment. Florida; 1996. p. 57-68.

55. Michigan Coalition Against Domestic and Sexual Violence. Sexual assault nurse examiner resource guide for Michigan communities. Okemos, MI.

56. Miller TR, Cohen MA, Wiersema B. Victim costs and consequences: a new look: National Institute of Justice;1996.

57. National Center for Injury Protection and Control Fact Sheet. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1999 Oct.

58. National Center for Victims of Crime & Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center. Rape in America: a report to the nation. Arlington: National Center for Victims of Crime; 1992 Apr.

59. National Center for Victims of Crime. Issues: Payment for Forensic Exams. Prepared for the 2001 Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) Conference. Available at: www.ncvc.org/policy/issues/forensicexams/. Accessed June 2003.

60. National Center for Victims of Crime. Looking back—moving forward: a guidebook and workbook for communities responding to sexual assault. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime. NCJ 153768; 1993. Available at: www.ncvc.org.

61. National Center for Victims of Crime. Payment of Sexual Assault Forensic Exams. In Victim Policy Pipeline Spring 2001; 7(1).

62. National Institute of Justice. The extent and costs of crime victimization: a new look. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs; 1996 Jan.

63. Nieves-Khouw FC. Recognizing victims of physical and sexual abuse. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am 1997;Jun 9(2):141-8.

64. Ohio Department of Health. Ohio sexual assault protocol training packet. Available at: www.odh.state.oh.us. Accessed August 2000.

65. Ohio Department of Health. Ohio protocol for the treatment of sexual assault survivors. Available at: www.odh.state.oh.us. Accessed August 2000.

66. Osatlin A, Short LM. Intimate partner violence and sexual assault: a guide to training materials and programs for health care providers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 1998.

67. Patterson JJ. Honing our clinical awareness of sexual abuse. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1989 May;89(5):617.

68. Ramin SM, Satin AJ, Stone IC, et al. Sexual assault in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 1992 Nov;80(5):860-4.

69. Ramin SM. Sexual assault in postmenopausal women. Primary care update for Ob/Gyns 1997 March-Apr;4(2):L65-70.

70. Rennison C. Rape and sexual assault: reporting to police and medical attention, 1992-2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 194530; 2002 Aug.

71. Resick PA, Jordan CG, Girelli SA, et al. A comparative outcome study of behavioral group therapy for sexual assault victims. Behav Ther 1988;19:385-401.

72. Resick PA, Schnicke MK. Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assault victims. J Consult Clin Psychol 1992;60(5):748-56.

73. Resnick H, Acierno R, Holmes M, et al. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study. J Anxiety Disord 1999 Jul-Aug;13(4):359-70.

74. Rodgers, GD. Sequelae of sexual assault. Primary care update for Ob/Gyns 1997 July-Aug;4(4):143-6.

75. Rogers D. Physical aspects of alleged sexual assaults. Med Sci Law 1996 Apr;36(2):117-22.

76. Rothbaum BO. A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disordered sexual assault victims. Bull Menninger Clin 1997 Summer;61(3):317-34.

77. Santucci KA, Nelson DG, McQuillen KK, et al. Wood's lamp utility in the identification of semen. Pediatrics 1999 Dec;104(6):1342-4.

78. Scott DL, Schelbe DT, White LJ. An important question in the evaluation of sexual assault victims. Acad Emerg Med 1997 Apr;4(4):329-30.

79. Sexual Assault Response Team. Abstracts for breakout sessions. Paper presented at: First National Sexual Assault Response Team Training Conference; 2001 May 25-27; San Antonio, Texas.

80. Sexual offense evidence collection protocol. Albany: State of New York Department of Health Rape Crisis Program;1991 June 22. p. 1-128.

81. Sexual Assault Reform Act. S. 8238 A. 11538. State of New York. State Legislature; 2000.

82. Skinner CJ, Forster G. The coexistence of physical and sexual assault. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995 May;172(5):1644-5.

83. Slaughter L, Brown CR, Crowley S, et al. Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997 Mar;176(3):609-16.

84. Sloan L. Sexual assault nurse examiners: the new challenges. Sex Assault Rep 1999 July-Aug;2(6):81-96.

85. Smith K, Holmseth J, Macgregor M, et al. Sexual assault response team: overcoming obstacles to program development. J Emerg Nurs 1998 Aug;24(4):365-7.

86. Smock WS, Nichols GR, Fuller PM. Development and implementation of the first clinical forensic medicine training program. J Forensic Sci 1993 Jul;38(4):835-9.

87. Society for General Internal Medicine. Sexual trauma: dilemmas for the primary care practitioner. 20th Annual Meeting. Washington, DC; 1997 May.

88. State of New Jersey. Standards for providing services to survivors of sexual assault. New Jersey: Department of Law and Public Safety, Division of Criminal Justice;1998 Aug.

89. State of Rhode Island Rape Crisis Center. Building alliances: a guide for health care providers. United Healthcare;1996. p. 1-24.

90. Stobo JD, Salmon ME, Cohn F, editors. Confronting chronic neglect: the education and training of health professionals on family violence. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002.

91. Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Full report of the prevalence, incidence, and consequences of violence against women. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. NCJ 183781; 2000 Nov.

92. Turman DM. Understanding DNA evidence: a guide for victim service providers. Office for Victims of Crime Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. NCJ 185690; 2001 Apr.

93. University of Bern. Sexual assault care: a training video. Institute of Legal Medicine. Available at: www.cx.unibe.ch/irm. Bern, Switzerland.

94. U.S. Department of Justice. Crime in the U.S. 2001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reporting. NCJ 197761; 2002 Oct.

95. U.S. Department of Justice. Criminal victimization 2000: Changes 1999-2000, with Trends 1993-2000, Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. NCJ 187007; 2001 Jun, p. 3.

96. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Attorney General's Recommended National Sexual Assault Forensic Examination Protocol. As required by the Violence Against Women Act of 2000, Section 1405. In press.

97. U.S. Department of Justice. Sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs: improving the community response to sexual assault victims. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs. NCJ 186366; 2001 Apr.

98. U.S. Department of Justice. Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ 190251; 2001 Dec.

99. Veronen LJ, Kilpatrick DG. Self-reported fears of rape victims: a preliminary investigation. Behav Modif 1980;4:383-96.

100. Voelker R. Experts hope team approach will improve the quality of rape exams. JAMA 1996 Apr 275(13).

101. Woodtli MA, Breslin E. Violence-related content in the nursing curriculum: a national study. J Nurs Ed 1996 Nov;35(8):367-74.

102. Xenarios S, Reichert K, Giordano L. Implementing a multi-disciplinary sexual assault forensic examiner program in an urban teaching hospital setting. Paper presented at the National Sexual Violence Prevention Conference: Coming Together to End Sexual Assault; 2000 May 16-19; Adams Mark Hotel, Dallas, Texas, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

104. Young WW, Bracken AC, Goddard MA, et al. Sexual assault: review of a national model protocol for forensic and medical evaluation. New Hampshire Sexual Assault Medical Examination Protocol Project Committee. Obstet Gynecol 1992 Nov;80(5):878-83.

Child Abuse and Sexual Assault

1. Ackerman PT, Newton JEO, McPherson WB, et al. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric diagnoses in three groups of abused children (sexual, physical, and both). Child Abuse Negl 1998; 22(8):759-74.

2. Adams JA. Medical evaluation of suspected child sexual abuse: it's time for standardized training, referral centers, and routine peer review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999 Nov;153(11):1121-2.

3. Adams JA, Harper K, Knudson S, et al. Examination findings in legally confirmed child sexual abuse: it's normal to be normal. Pediatrics 1994 Sep;94(3):310-17.

4. Adams JA, Wells R. Normal versus abnormal genital findings in children: how well do examiners agree? Child Abuse Negl 1993 Sept-Oct;17(5):663-75.

5. Alexander RC, Smith WL. Shaken baby syndrome. Infants Young Child 1998 Jan;10(3):1-9.

6. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. A guide to references and resources in child abuse and neglect, 2nd edition. Available at: www.aap.org.

7. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Distinguishing sudden infant death syndrome from child abuse. Pediatrics 2001 Feb;107(2):437-41.

8. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Focus on child abuse: resources for prevention, recognition and treatment. 2nd edition [book on CD-ROM]. Available at: www.aap.org.

9. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Gonorrhea in prepubertal children. Pediatrics 1998 Jan;101(1 Pt 1):134-5.

10. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Guidelines for the evaluation of sexual abuse of children: subject review. Pediatrics 1999 Jan;103(1):186-90.

11. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Investigation and review of unexpected infant and child deaths. Pediatrics 1999 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):1158-40.

12. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse and neglect. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Ad Hoc Work Group on Child Abuse and Neglect. Pediatrics 1999 Aug;104(2 Pt 1):348-50.

13. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. Shaken baby syndrome: inflicted cerebral trauma. Pediatrics 1993 Dec;92(6):872-5 (under revision).

14. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. The visual diagnosis of child abuse. Available at: www.aap.org.

15. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Hospital Care and Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect. The medical necessity for the hospitalization of the abused and neglected child. Pediatrics 1998 Apr;101(4 Pt 1):715-6.

16. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatricians' view on the treatment & prevention of violent injuries to children—Executive Summary; 2000. p. 1-3.

17. American Academy of Pediatrics. Sexual assault and the adolescent. Policy Statement RE9433. Pediatrics 1994 Nov; 94(5), 1-11 (under revision).

18. American College of Emergency Physicians. Child abuse policy statement. Available at: www.acep.org. Accessed January 2000.

19. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Adolescent victims of sexual assault. Educational Bulletin. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. No. 252; 1998 Oct.

20. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Drawing the line: a guide to developing effective sexual assault prevention programs for middle school students. Washington, DC: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; 2000.

21. American College of Physicians/American Society of Internal Medicine. Medical knowledge self-assessment program: MKSAP 12—Ambulatory Medicine. American College of Physicians/American Society of Internal Medicine; 2001.

22. American Medical Association. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines on child physical abuse and neglect. Chicago: American Medical Association;1992.

23. American Medical Association. Diagnostic and treatment guidelines on child sexual abuse. Chicago: American Medical Association;1992.

24. American Osteopathic Association. Child abuse; adopted by the House of Delegates of the American Osteopathic Association (originally in 1974; revised 1985; 1990; 1995, 2000).

25. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Descriptive terminology in child sexual abuse in medical evaluations. National Interdisciplinary Guidelines Task Force. Available at: www.apsac.org.

26. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Handbook on child maltreatment. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Available at: www.apsac.org.

27. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Photographic documentation of child abuse. National Interdisciplinary Guidelines Task Force. Available at: www.apsac.org.

28. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Psychological evaluation of suspected psychological maltreatment of children and adolescents. National Interdisciplinary Guidelines Task Force. Available at: www.apsac.org.

29. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Psychological evaluation of suspected sexual abuse in children. National Interdisciplinary Guidelines Task Force. Available at: www.apsac.org.

30. American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. Use of anatomical dolls in child sexual abuse assessments. National Interdisciplinary Guidelines Task Force. Available at: www.apsac.org.

31. Anderson C. Childhood sexually transmitted diseases: one consequence of sexual abuse. Public Health Nurs 1995;12(1):41-6.

32. Atabaki S, Paradise JE. The medical evaluation of the sexually abused child: lessons from a decade of research. Pediatrics 1999 Jul;104(1):178-86.

33. Bar-on ME. Teaching residents about child abuse and neglect. Acad Med 1998 May;73(5):573-4.

34. Bays J, Chadwick D. Medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child. Child Abuse Negl 1993 Jan-Feb;17(1):91-110.

35. Bays J, Chewnig M, Keltner L, et al. Changes in hymenal anatomy during examination of prepubertal girls for possible sexual abuse. Adolesc Pedriatr Gynecol 1990;3:34-46.

36. Berenson AB. The prepubertal genital exam: what is normal and abnormal. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 1994 Dec;6(6):526-30.

37. Berenson AB, Chacko MR, Wiemann CM, et al. A case-control study of anatomic changes resulting from sexual abuse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000 Apr;182(4):820-31.

38. Berkowitz CD. Medical consequences of sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Jun;22(6):541-50.

39. Berliner L, Saunders BE. Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children: results of a controlled 2-year follow-up study. Child Maltreat 1996;1:294-309.

40. Bernet W. Practice parameters for the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents who may have been physically or sexually abused. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr 1997 Oct;36(10 Suppl):37S-56S.

41. Betchel K, Podrazik M. Evaluation of the adolescent rape victim. Pediatr Clin North Am 1999 Aug;46(4):809-23.

42. Block R. What doctors who perform child abuse medical evaluations want the rest of the team to know. J Okla State Med Assoc 1998 Nov;91(8):457.

43. Boney-McCoy S, Finkelhor D. Prior victimization: a risk factor for child sexual abuse and for PTSD-related symptomatology among sexually abused youth. Child Abuse Negl 1995;19(12):1401-21.

44. Botash AS. Examination for sexual abuse in prepubertal children: an update. Pediatr Ann 1997 May;26(5):312-20.

45. Britton H, Hansen K. Sexual abuse. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1997 Mar;40(1):226-40.

46. California Medical Training Center. Pediatric sexual abuse evidentiary exam training course and participant manual. Available at: web.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/medtrng/training/events.html. Sacramento, CA.

47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and STDs. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR Recomm Rep 2002 May10;51 (RR-6):69-74.

48. Child abuse and forensic pediatric medicine fellowship curriculum statement. American Academy of Pediatrics, Section on Child Abuse and Neglect, and the Forensic Pediatrics Physician Leadership Group, Committee on Fellowship Curriculum. Child Maltreat 2000 Feb 5(1): 58-62.

49. Children's Hospital Medical Center. Sexual assault protocol. Departments of Social Service and Emergency Medicine. Available at: www.cincinnatichildrens.org.

50. Christian CW, Lavelle JM, De Jong AR, et al. Forensic evidence findings in prepubertal victims of sexual assault. Pediatrics 2000 Jul;106(1):100-4.

51. Cohen JA, Mannarino AP. A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: initial findings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatr 1996;3(1):42-50.

52. Cohen JA, Mannarino AP. A treatment model for sexually abused preschoolers. J Interpersonal Violence 1993;8:115-31.

53. Coury DL. Recognition of child abuse: notes from the field. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000 Jan;154(1): 9-10.

54. Davies D, Cole J, Albertella G, et al. A model for conducting forensic interviews with child victims of abuse. Child Maltreat 1996 Aug;1(3):189-99.

55. Davidson DA. Physical abuse of preschoolers: identification and intervention through occupational therapy. Am J Occup Ther 1995 Mar;49(3):235-43.

56. Deblinger E, Lippmann U, Steer RA. Sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress symptoms: Initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreat 1996;1:310-21.

57. Deblinger E, Steer RA, Lippmann J. Maternal factors associated with sexually abused children's psychosocial adjustment. Child Maltreat 1999; 4(1):13-20.

58. Deblinger E, Steer RA, Lippmann J. Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse Negl 1999 Dec;23(12):1371-8.

59. De Jong AR. Impact of child sexual abuse medical examinations on dependency and criminal systems. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Jun;22(6):645-52.

60. Dubowitz H. Children's responses to the evaluation for sexual abuse. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Jun;22(6):581-4.

61. Dubowitz H, Giardino A, Gustavson E. Child neglect: guidance for pediatricians. Pediatr in Rev 2000 Apr;21(4):111-6.

62. English DJ. The extent and consequences of child maltreatment. Future Child 1998 Spr;8(1):39-53.

63. Faller K. Evaluating children suspected of having been sexually abused. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.; in cooperation with the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children; 1996.

64. Ferrell J. Foley catheter balloon technique for visualizing the hymen in female adolescent sexual abuse victims. J Emerg Nurs 1995 Dec;21(6):585-6.

65. Finkel M. Technical conduct of the child sexual abuse medical examination. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Jun;22(6):555-66.

66. Flaherty EG, Sege R, Binns HJ, et al. Health Care Providers' Experience Reporting Child Abuse in the Primary Care Setting. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000 May;154: 489-93.

67. Friedrich WN, Gramsch P, Damon L, et al. Child Sexual Behavior Inventory: normative and clinical comparisons. Psychol Assess 1992; 4:303-44.

68. Goenijian AK, Karayan I, Pynoos RS, et al. Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma. Am J Psychiatry 1997;154:536-42.

69. Gausche M. Robbed of Innocence. Emerg Med Serv 1997 Mar;26(3):39-42, 62.

70. Giardino AP, Christian CW, Giardino ER. A practical guide to the evaluation of child physical abuse and neglect. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.;1997.

71. Giardino AP, Brayden RM, Sugarman JM. Residency training in child sexual abuse evaluation. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Apr;22(4):331-6.

72. Gully KJ, Britton H, Hansen K, et al. A new measure for distress during child sexual abuse examinations: the genital examination distress scale. Child Abuse Negl 1999 Jan;23(1):61-70.

73. Hadlich SF, Kohl PK. Sexually transmitted diseases in children. Dermatol Clin 1998 Oct;16(4):859-61.

74. Hammerschlag MR. The transmissibility of sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Jun;22(6):623-35.

75. Hammerschlag MR. Sexually transmitted diseases in sexually abused children: medical and legal implications. Sex Transm Infect 1998 Jun;74(3):167-74.

76. Hanson RF, Resnick HS, Saunders BE, et al. Factors related to the reporting of childhood sexual assault. Child Abuse Negl 1999 Jun;23(6):559-69.

77. Heger AH. Twenty years in the evaluation of the sexually abused child: has medicine helped or hurt the child and the family? Child Abuse Negl 1996 Oct;20(10):893-7.

78. Hibbard RA. Triage and referrals for child sexual abuse medical examinations from the sociolegal system. Child Abuse Negl 1998 Jun;22(6):503-13.

79. Holmes WS. Sexual abuse of boys: definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae and management. JAMA 1998 280 (21):1855-1862.

80. Houry D, Sachs CJ, Feldhaus KM, Linden J. Violence-inflicted injuries: reporting laws in the fifty states. Ann Emerg Med 2002 Jan;39(1):56-60.

81. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) The accreditation manual for hospitals: scoring guidelines. Oakbrook Terrace: JCAHO; 1994.

82. Jenny C. Medical evaluation of physically and sexually abused children. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.; in cooperation with the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children; 1996.

83. Jenny C. Pediatrics and child sexual abuse: where we've been and where we're going. Pediatr Ann 1997 May;26(5):284-6.

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