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The Use of Episiotomy in Obstetrical Care

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1. Weber AM, Meyn L. Episiotomy use in the United States, 1979-1997. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100(6):1177-82.

2. Popovic JR. 1999 National Hospital Discharge Survey: Annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. Vital Health Stat 13 2001; (151):i-v, 1-206.

3. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, et al. Births: Final data for 2000. Natl Vital Stat Rep 2002; 50(5):1-101.

4. Low LK, Seng JS, Murtland TL, et al. Clinician-specific episiotomy rates: Impact on perineal outcomes. J Midwifery Womens Health 2000; 45(2):87-93.

5. Webb DA, Culhane J. Time of day variation in rates of obstetric intervention to assist in vaginal delivery. J Epidemiol Community Health 2002; 56(8):577-8.

6. Kaczorowski J, Levitt C, Hanvey L, et al. A national survey of use of obstetric procedures and technologies in Canadian hospitals: Routine or based on existing evidence? Birth 1998; 25(1):11-8.

7. Berkman ND, DeWalt DA, Pignone MP, et al. Literacy and Health Outcomes. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 87 (Prepared by RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0016). AHRQ Publication No. 04-E007-2. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2004.

8. Sleep J, Grant A, Garcia J, et al. West Berkshire perineal management trial. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 289(6445):587-90.

9. Harrison RF, Brennan M, North PM, et al. Is routine episiotomy necessary? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984; 288(6435):1971-5.

10. House MJ, Cario G, Jones MH. Episiotomy and the perineum: A random controlled trial. J Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 7(2):107-10.

11. Klein MC, Gauthier RJ, Jorgensen SH, et al. Does episiotomy prevent perineal trauma and pelvic floor relaxation? Online J Curr Clin Trials 1992; Doc No 10.

12. Argentine Episiotomy Trial Collaborative Group. Routine vs selective episiotomy: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1993; 342(8886-8887):1517-8.

13. Eltorkey MM, Nuaim MA. Episiotomy, elective or selective: A report of a random allocation trial. J Obstet Gynaecol 1994; 14(5):317-20.

14. Dannecker C, Hillemanns P, Strauss A, et al. Episiotomy and perineal tears presumed to be imminent: Randomized controlled trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83:364-8.

15. Coats PM, Chan KK, Wilkins M, et al. A comparison between midline and mediolateral episiotomies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1980; 87(5):408-12.

16. Adoni A, Anteby E. The use of Histoacryl for episiotomy repair. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1991; 98(5):476-8.

17. Kettle C, Hills RK, Jones P, et al. Continuous versus interrupted perineal repair with standard or rapidly absorbed sutures after spontaneous vaginal birth: A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 359(9325):2217-23.

18. Doyle PM, Johanson R, Geetha T, et al. A prospective randomised controlled trial of perineal repair after childbirth, comparing interrupted chromic catgut to subcuticular prolene for skin closure. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1993; 100(1):93-4.

19. Beard R, Boyd I, Sims C. A trial of polyglycolic acid and chromic catgut sutures in episiotomy repair. Br J Clin Pract 1974; 28(12):409-10.

20. Livingstone E, Simpson D, Naismith WC. A comparison between catgut and polyglycolic acid sutures in episiotomy repair. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1974; 81(3):245-7.

21. Rogers RE. Evaluation of post-episiorrhaphy pain: Polyglycolic acid vs catgut sutures. Mil Med 1974; 139(2):102-4.

22. Ping WW, Kee TS. Episiotomy repair: A comparison of catgut and polyglycolic acid sutures. Med J Malaysia 1975; 30(2):135-8.

23. Buchan PC, Nicholls JA. Pain after episiotomy—a comparison of two methods of repair. J R Coll Gen Pract 1980; 30(214):297-300.

24. Isager-Sally L, Legarth J, Jacobsen B, et al. Episiotomy repair—immediate and long-term sequelae. A prospective randomized study of three different methods of repair. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 93(5):420-5.

25. Spencer JA, Grant A, Elbourne D, et al. A randomized comparison of glycerol-impregnated chromic catgut with untreated chromic catgut for the repair of perineal trauma. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1986; 93(5):426-30.

26. Grant A, Sleep J, Ashurst H, et al. Dyspareunia associated with the use of glycerol-impregnated catgut to repair perineal trauma. Report of a 3-year follow-up study. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 96(6):741-3.

27. Mahomed K, Grant A, Ashurst H, et al. The Southmead perineal suture study. A randomized comparison of suture materials and suturing techniques for repair of perineal trauma. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 96(11):1272-80.

28. Olah KS. Episiotomy repair-suture material and short term morbidity. J Obstet Gynaecol 1990; 10:503-5.

29. Gordon B, Mackrodt C, Fern E, et al. The Ipswich Childbirth Study: 1. A randomised evaluation of two stage postpartum perineal repair leaving the skin unsutured. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 105(4):435-40.

30. Mackrodt C, Gordon B, Fern E, et al. The Ipswich Childbirth Study: 2. A randomised comparison of polyglactin 910 with chromic catgut for postpartum perineal repair. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 105(4):441-5.

31. McElhinney BR, Glenn DR, Dornan G, et al. Episiotomy repair: Vicryl versus Vicryl rapide. Ulster Med J 2000; 69(1):27-9.

32. Grant A, Gordon B, Mackrodat C, et al. The Ipswich childbirth study: One year follow up of alternative methods used in perineal repair. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 108(1):34-40.

33. Bowen ML, Selinger M. Episiotomy closure comparing enbucrilate tissue adhesive with conventional sutures. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2002; 78(3):201-5.

34. Upton A, Roberts CL, Ryan M, et al. A randomised trial, conducted by midwives, of perineal repairs comparing a polyglycolic suture material and chromic catgut. Midwifery 2002; 18(3):223-9.

35. Oboro VO, Tabowei TO, Loto OM, et al. A multicentre evaluation of the two-layered repair of postpartum perineal trauma. J Obstet Gynaecol 2003; 23(1):5-8.

36. Kettle C. Perineal care. Clin Evid 2002; (7):1284-95.

37. Kettle C, Johanson RB. Absorbable synthetic versus catgut suture material for perineal repair. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2):CD000006.

38. Sartore A, De Seta F, Maso G, et al. The effects of mediolateral episiotomy on pelvic floor function after vaginal delivery. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103(4):669-73.

39. Rockner G. Urinary incontinence after perineal trauma at childbirth. Scand J Caring Sci 1990; 4(4):169-72.

40. Viktrup L, Lose G, Rolff M, et al. The symptom of stress incontinence caused by pregnancy or delivery in primiparas. Obstet Gynecol 1992; 79(6):945-9.

41. Viktrup L, Lose G. The risk of stress incontinence 5 years after first delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185(1):82-7.

42. Karacam Z, Eroglu K. Effects of episiotomy on bonding and mothers' health. J Adv Nurs 2003; 43(4):384-94.

43. Eason E, Labrecque M, Marcoux S, et al. Effects of carrying a pregnancy and of method of delivery on urinary incontinence: A prospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2004; 4(1):4.

44. Eason E, Labrecque M, Marcoux S, et al. Anal incontinence after childbirth. CMAJ 2002; 166(3):326-30.

45. Walsh CJ, Mooney EF, Upton GJ, et al. Incidence of third-degree perineal tears in labour and outcome after primary repair. Br J Surg 1996; 83(2):218-21.

46. MacArthur C, Bick DE, Keighley MR. Faecal incontinence after childbirth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104(1):46-50.

47. Rockner G, Jonasson A, Olund A. The effect of mediolateral episiotomy at delivery on pelvic floor muscle strength evaluated with vaginal cones. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1991; 70(1):51-4.

48. Fleming N, Newton ER, Roberts J. Changes in postpartum perineal muscle function in women with and without episiotomies. J Midwifery Womens Health 2003; 48(1):53-9.

49. Sleep J, Grant A. West Berkshire perineal management trial: Three year follow up. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987; 295(6601):749-51.

50. Rockner G, Henningsson A, Wahlberg V, et al. Evaluation of episiotomy and spontaneous tears of perineum during childbirth. Scand J Caring Sci 1988; 2(1):19-24.

51. Larsson PG, Platz-Christensen JJ, Bergman B, et al. Advantage or disadvantage of episiotomy compared with spontaneous perineal laceration. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1991; 31(4):213-6.

52. Klein MC, Gauthier RJ, Robbins JM, et al. Relationship of episiotomy to perineal trauma and morbidity, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic floor relaxation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1994; 171(3):591-8.

53. Signorello LB, Harlow BL, Chekos AK, et al. Postpartum sexual functioning and its relationship to perineal trauma: A retrospective cohort study of primiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 184(5):881-8; discussion 888-90.

54. Gurewitsch ED, Donithan M, Stallings SP, et al. Episiotomy versus fetal manipulation in managing severe shoulder dystocia: A comparison of outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191(3):911-6.

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AHRQ Publication Number 05-E009-1
Current as of May 2005


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