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Literacy and Health Outcomes

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1. National Literacy Act of 1991. Pub. L. No. 102-73, 105 Stat. 333: (1991).

2. American Medical Association. Ad Hoc Committee on Health Literacy for the Council on Scientific Affairs. JAMA 1999;281:552-7.

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5. Davis TC, Long SW, Jackson RH, et al. Rapid estimate of adult literacy in medicine: a shortened screening instrument. Fam Med 1993;25:391-5.

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7. Kirsch I, Jungeblut A, Jenkins L, et al. Adult Literacy in America: A first look at the findings of the National Adult Literacy Survey. 3rd edition. Vol. 201. Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education, U.S. Department of Education, 2002.

8. Comings J, Reder S, Sum A. Building a Level Playing Field: The need to expand and improve the national and state adult education and literacy systems. Cambridge, MA: National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy; 2001.

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11. Baker DW, Gazmararian JA, Sudano J, et al. The association between age and health literacy among elderly persons. J Gerontol Series B-Psychol Scien Soc Scien 2000;55(6):S368-74.

12. West SL, King V, Carey TS, et al. Systems to rate the strength of scientific evidence. Evidence Report, Technology Assessment No. 47. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2002. AHRQ Publication No. 02-E016.

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14. Davis TC, Arnold C, Berkel HJ, et al. Knowledge and attitude on screening mammography among low-literate, low-income women. Cancer 1996;78(9):1912-20.

15. Lindau ST, Tomori C, Lyons T, et al. The association of health literacy with cervical cancer prevention knowledge and health behaviors in a multiethnic cohort of women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186(5):938-43.

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20. Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. Health literacy and the risk of hospital admission. J Gen Intern Med 1998;13(12):791-8.

21. Baker DW, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, et al. Functional health literacy and the risk of hospital admission among Medicare managed care enrollees. Am J Pub Health 2002;92(8):1278-83.

22. Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. Am J Pub Health 1997;87(6):1027-30.

23. Fortenberry JD, McFarlane MM, Hennessy M, et al. Relation of health literacy to gonorrhoea related care. Sex Trans Infect 2001;77(3):206-11.

24. Scott TL, Gazmararian JA, Williams MV, et al. Health literacy and preventive health care use among Medicare enrollees in a managed care organization. Med Care 2002;40(5):395-404.

25. Arnold CL, Davis TC, Berkel HJ, et al. Smoking status, reading level, and knowledge of tobacco effects among low-income pregnant women. Prevent Med 2001;32(4):313-20.

26. Gazmararian JA, Parker RM, Baker DW. Reading skills and family planning knowledge and practices in a low-income managed-care population. Obstet Gynecol 1999;93(2):239-44.

27. Kalichman SC, Rompa D. Functional health literacy is associated with health status and health-related knowledge in people living with HIV-AIDS. J Acq Immune Def Synd Hum Retrovirol 2000;25(4):337-44.

28. Kalichman SC, Rompa D, Cage M. Reliability and validity of self-reported CD4 lymphocyte count and viral load test results in people living with HIV/AIDS. Int J STD & AIDS 2000;11(9):579-85.

29. Kalichman SC, Benotsch E, Suarez T, et al. Health literacy and health-related knowledge among persons living with HIV/AIDS. Am J Prev Med 2000;18(4):325-31.

30. Miller LG, Liu H, Hays RD, et al. Knowledge of antiretroviral regimen dosing and adherence: a longitudinal study. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36(4):514-8.

31. Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, et al. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Int Med 1998;158(2):166-72.

32. Williams MV, Baker DW, Honig EG, et al. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest 1998;114(4):1008-15.

33. Conlin KK, Schumann L. Research. Literacy in the health care system: a study on open heart surgery patients. J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2002;14(1):38-42.

34. Wilson FL, McLemore R. Patient literacy levels: a consideration when designing patient education programs. Rehab Nursing 1997;22(6):311-7.

35. Fredrickson DD, Washington RL, Pham N, et al. Reading grade levels and health behaviors of parents at child clinics. Kansas Med 1995;96(3):127-9.

36. Hawthorne G. Preteenage drug use in Australia: the key predictors and school-based drug education. J Adolesc Health 1996;20(5):384-95.

37. Kaufman H, Skipper B, Small L, et al. Effect of literacy on breast-feeding outcomes. South Med J 2001;94(3):293-6.

38. Davis TC, Byrd RS, Arnold CL, et al. Low literacy and violence among adolescents in a summer sports program. J Adolesc Health 1999;24(6):403-11.

39. Stanton WR, Feehan M, McGee R, et al. The relative value of reading ability and IQ as predictors of teacher-reported behavior problems. J Learn Disabil 1990;23(8):514-7.

40. Frack SA, Woodruff SI, Candelaria J, et al. Correlates of compliance with measurement protocols in a Latino nutrition-intervention study. Am J Prev Med 1997;13(2):131-6.

41. Kalichman SC, Ramachandran B, Catz S. Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapies in HIV patients of low health literacy. J Gen Intern Med 1999;14(5):267-73.

42. Li B, Brown W, Ampil F, et al. Patient compliance is critical for equivalent clinical outcomes for breast cancer treated by breast-conservation therapy. Ann Surg 2000;231(6):883-9.

43. Golin CE, Liu H, Hays RD, et al. A prospective study of predictors of adherence to combination antiretroviral medication. J Gen Intern Med 2002;17(10):756-65.

44. Ross LA, Frier BM, Kelnar CJ, et al. Child and parental mental ability and glycaemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Med 2001;18(5):364-9.

45. Schillinger D, Grumbach K, Piette J, et al. Association of health literacy with diabetes outcomes. JAMA 2002;288(4):475-82.

46. Battersby C, Hartley K, Fletcher AE, et al. Cognitive function in hypertension: a community based study. J Hum Hyperten 1993;7(2):117-23.

47. Kalichman SC, Rompa D. Emotional reactions to health status changes and emotional well-being among HIV-positive persons with limited reading literacy. J Clin Psychol Med Set 2000;7(4):203-11.

48. Gazmararian J, Baker D, Parker R, et al. A multivariate analysis of factors associated with depression: evaluating the role of health literacy as a potential contributor. Arch Int Med 2000;160(21):3307-14.

49. Zaslow MJ, Hair EC, Dion MR, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms and low literacy as potential barriers to employment in a sample of families receiving welfare: are there two-generational implications? Womens Health 2001;32(3):211-51.

50. Gordon MM, Hampson R, Capell HA, et al. Illiteracy in rheumatoid arthritis patients as determined by the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) score. Rheumatol 2002;41(7):750-4.

51. Fisch M, Unverzagt F, Hanna M, et al. Information preferences, reading ability, and emotional changes in outpatients during the process of obtaining informed consent for autologous bone-marrow transplantation. J Cancer Ed 1998;13(2):71-5.

52. Andrasik F, Kabela E, Quinn S, et al. Psychological functioning of children who have recurrent migraine. Pain 1988;34(1):43-52.

53. Bennett CL, Ferreira MR, Davis TC, et al. Relation between literacy, race, and stage of presentation among low-income patients with prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1998;16(9):3101-4.

54. Weiss BD, Hart G, McGee DL, et al. Health status of illiterate adults: relation between literacy and health status among persons with low literacy skills. J Am Board Fam Pract 1992;5(3):257-64.

55. Sullivan LM, Dukes KA, Harris L, et al. A comparison of various methods of collecting self-reported health outcomes data among low-income and minority patients. Med Care 1995;33(4 Suppl):AS183-94.

56. Weiss BD, Blanchard JS, McGee DL, et al. Illiteracy among Medicaid recipients and its relationship to health care costs. J Health Care Poor Underserved 1994;5(2):99-111.

57. Davis TC, Fredrickson DD, Arnold C, et al. A polio immunization pamphlet with increased appeal and simplified language does not improve comprehension to an acceptable level. Patient Educat Counsel 1998;33(1):25-37.

58. Murphy PW, Chesson AL, Walker L, et al. Comparing the effectiveness of video and written material for improving knowledge among sleep disorders clinic patients with limited literacy skills. Southern Med J 2000;93(3):297-304.

59. Michielutte R, Bahnson J, Dignan MB, et al. The use of illustrations and narrative text style to improve readability of a health education brochure. J Cancer Ed 1992;7(3):251-60.

60. Wydra EW. The effectiveness of a self-care management interactive multimedia module. Oncol Nursing Forum 2001;28(9):1399-407.

61. Meade CD, McKinney WP, Barnas GP. Educating patients with limited literacy skills: the effectiveness of printed and videotaped materials about colon cancer. Am J Pub Health 1994;84(1):119-21.

62. Lillington L, Royce J, Novak D, et al. Evaluation of a smoking cessation program for pregnant minority women. Cancer Pract 1995;3(3):157-63.

63. Bill-Harvey D, Rippey R, Abeles M, et al. Outcome of an osteoarthritis education program for low-literacy patients taught by indigenous instructors. Patient Educat Counsel 1989;13(2):133-42.

64. Hussey LC. Minimizing effects of low literacy on medication knowledge and compliance among the elderly. Clin Nurs Res 1994;3(2):132-45.

65. Howard-Pitney B, Winkleby MA, Albright CL, et al. The Stanford Nutrition Action Program: a dietary fat intervention for low-literacy adults. Am J Pub Health 1997;87(12):1971-6.

66. Gans KM, Lovell HJ, Fortunet R, et al. Gem no. 289. Low-literacy audio intervention for lowering fat intake. J Nutr Ed 1998;30(6):410B.

67. Hartman TJ, McCarthy PR, Park RJ et al. Results of a community-based low-literacy nutrition education program. J Comm Health 1997;22(5):325-41.

68. Murphy PW, Davis TC, Mayeaux EJ, et al. Teaching nutrition education in adult learning centers: linking literacy, health care, and the community. J Comm Health Nurs 1996;13(3):149-58.

69. Fouad MN, Kiefe CI, Bartolucci AA, et al. A hypertension control program tailored to unskilled and minority workers. Ethnicit Dis 1997;7(3):191-9.

70. Kumanyika SK, Adams-Campbell L, Van Horn B, et al. Outcomes of a cardiovascular nutrition counseling program in African-Americans with elevated blood pressure or cholesterol level. J Am Diet Assoc 1999;99(11):1380-91.

71. Mulrow C, Bailey S, Sonksen PH, et al. Evaluation of an audiovisual diabetes education program: negative results of a randomized trial of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Gen Intern Med 1987;2(4):215-9.

72. Poresky RH, Daniels AM. Two-year comparison of income, education, and depression among parents participating in regular Head Start or supplementary Family Service Center Services. Psychol Reports 2001;88(3 Pt 1):787-96.

73. Rudd RE, Moeykens BA, Colton TC. Health and literacy: a review of medical and public health literature. In: Comins J, Garners B, Smith C, editors. Annual Review of Adult Learning and Literacy. New York: Jossey-Bass; 1999.

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AHRQ Publication Number 04-E007-1
Current as of January 2004


The information on this page is archived and provided for reference purposes only.


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