Redesigning Hospital Care for Quality and Efficiency: Applications of Positive Deviance and Lean in Reducing MRSA (Text Version)
On September 19, 2009, Bradley N. Doebbeling made this presentation at the 2009 Annual Conference. Select to access the PowerPoint® presentation (2.6 MB).
Redesigning Hospital Care for Quality and Efficiency : Applications of Positive Deviance, & Lean to Reduce MRSA
Brad Doebbeling, MD, MSc
Director, IU Center for Health Services Research,
HSR Director, Regenstrief Institute,
Senior Scientist, VA HSR&D Center of Excellence
Med. Dept. Professor of Health Services Research, IU School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN
- Funding from AHRQ
- Testing Techniques to Radically Reduce Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria HHSA2902006000131 (Completed).
- Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) Initiative Assessment Program HHSA290200600013I (Current).
- Implementing and Improving the Integration of Decision Support into Outpatient Clinical WorkflowHSA2902006000131(Current).
- Funding from AHRQ and CDC
- Testing Spread and Implementation of Novel MRSA-Reducing Practices HHSA290200600013 (Current).
- Thanks to our collaborators, partners, providers, patients!
MRSA Phase One
- AHRQ funded proposal to reduce MRSA in hospitals over 18 months through the ACTION collaborative funding mechanism.
- Our interventions were based on the Pittsburgh VAMC model as specified by AHRQ, using lean, organizational change and informatics (data exchange, reporting):
- Conduct active surveillance of all incoming pts. in ICUs.
- Improve rates of contact isolation.
- Improve hand hygiene rates.
- Organizational change.
- Environmental decontamination.
MRSA Phase One -
- Indianapolis has unique health information exchange (RHIO)
- Indiana Network for Patient Care (INPC).
- Includes nearly all of the healthcare systems in Indianapolis.
- Spans >95% of all of the inpatient care in the city, expanding regionally.
- The five competing health care systems have agreed to share information on their patients, to ensure safe and quality health care.
- MRSA Burden
- Over 126,000 persons are infected by MRSA in hospitals annually.
- ~ 4 MRSA infections per 1,000 hospital discharges.
- Over 5,000 die as a result of these infections.
- Over $2.5 billion excess healthcare costs.
- 1/3 patients acquiring MRSA will become infected.
Reservoir for the Spread of Antibiotic Resistant Pathogens
- Colonized patients, NOT just infected patients, can transmit AR pathogens to healthcare workers and other patients.
|Unidentified Colonized Patients||Clinical Cultures +|
|History of MRSA|
Efficacy of Preventive Interventions
- Large body of consistent evidence that control is highly cost effective (Gould 2006).
- Organizational Change initiatives (Lean, PD) effective reductions of MRSA 50-85% (Pittsburg, Indy, RWJ Beta 2008-9).
- Active interventions to eliminate MRSA transmission shown to save money and lives (van Rijen & Kluytmans, 2009).
- Innovative approaches to engage hospital staff to intervene and improve healthcare processes effective in reducing MRSA (Cooper 2005).
- External pressure on hospitals to implement universal active MRSA surveillance. Several states and the VA mandated screening (Graham, 2007).
MRSA Phase One
- Our health care engineers partnered with and trained front-line workers to use lean-six sigma and positive deviance approaches.
- Focused on sharing evidence and methods, coaching front-line staff teams to lead instituting systems changes to systematize processes and sustain practices.
- Emphasized regular measurement and feedback of adherence to enhance adoption.
- Weekly meeting of all hospital teams to identify barriers & facilitators, review and reinforce progress, share best practices, strategize about spread and solutions.
|Define the Problem||Project Charter|
|Baseline Current Processes||Process Map
Process Observation Worksheet
|Identify Operational Barriers|
|Develop Future State Process||Lean Tools|
|Process Control Strategy||Process Control Plan|
Admission Culture Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12/08)
Hand Hygiene Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12/08)
Contact Isolation Compliance for Study Units (1/08-12-08)
An Operational Citywide Electronic Infection Control Network: Results from 1st Year
- Infection control is a regional problem, requiring a coordinated effort.
- Created a citywide electronic notification system to prospectively track all known patients with MRSA.
- Currently track 17,000 patients with a history of MRSA infection or colonization across Indianapolis.
- Since May 2007, delivered 2698 admission alerts on patients with a history of MRSA, 19 percent based on data from another institution.
- 20 infection control providers (ICPs) spanning 16 hospital.
Kho, Lemmon, Dexter, Doebbeling AMIA 2008.
MRSA Phase One Results
- Significant improvement in process measure adherence to 80->95%
- Pre and post intervention results for first three hospitals suggest average of 60% reduction on study units over 9-12 months.
- ~ 20% reduction MRSA infections hospital wide.
- Reduction in level of MRSA among S. aureus.
- Reduction in associated BSIs and UTIs.
- Our success led to a follow-up contract funded by AHRQ and CDC.
MRSA Phase Two
- Spreading the successful intervention of Phase One to more units in Indianapolis.
- Recruited 4 Indy and 3 other hospital systems
- University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario.
- St. Patrick's Health, Missoula, Montana.
- Maine Medical System, Providence, Maine.
- Training and Coaching Using Experienced Integrated Positive Deviance with Lean Engineering Principals.
MRSA Phase Two
- What is Positive Deviance?
- Technique to engage front line staff in owning & improving processes and sustaining change.
- Based on identification of practices of used by 'positively deviant' staff/departments.
- Critical for staff involvement/buy-in.
Integrated Lean/PD approach
|Define the Problem||Discovery|
|Baseline Current Processes|
|Develop Future State Process||Action|
Discovery and Action Dialogues
- Informal meetings held with front line staff to discuss the current status of the process.
- Incorporate as much front line staff as possible.
- The goal is to 'discover' the issues and potential solutions and then take 'action' as rapidly as possible.
- It is easier to "act your way into a new way of thinking" than to "think your way into a new way to acting".
MRSA Phase Two
- What's different in Phase Two besides spread to new systems?
- Learning Collaborative: Teams from hospitals connect with teams from other hospitals employing the MRSA Intervention Bundle to foster learning and innovation.
- More extensive activities to train interdisciplinary teams within each of the participating health systems (compared with first study).
MRSA Phase Two- Challenges
- Leadership engagement critical in times of financial and H1N1 challenges.
- Data collection for research rigor may be too intensive for most community hospitals.
- Hospitals need and desire regular feedback on impact of interventions.
- Need a better electronic data collection infrastructure relating to displaying intervention success (outcome data).
- Need better solutions to support long-distance collaboration, coaching, mentoring.
- Need new mechanisms for academic achievement, paper writing, publishing of redesign papers, new journals, new toolkits.
MRSA Phase Two - Lessons Learned
- System redesign approach of training, consultation and coaching front-line staff seems to be strong, sustained approach.
- Importance of buy-in from highest institutional levels crucial.
- Enthusiasm builds from within because redesign teams own it!
- Informatics tool helpful in identifying great cross-over of MRSA patients in hospitals.
Conclusions from other recent AHRQ Work
- Hospital Acquired Infections Collaboratory has identified many important barriers, facilitators and positive deviant practices to reduce HAIs!
- Usability assessments, including enthnographic observation, structured interviews and usability testing of prototypes valuable for improving CDS!—see Haggstrom et al, Saleem et al at AMIA 2009.