Skip Navigation Archive: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Archive: Agency for Healthcare Research Quality
Archival print banner

This information is for reference purposes only. It was current when produced and may now be outdated. Archive material is no longer maintained, and some links may not work. Persons with disabilities having difficulty accessing this information should contact us at: Let us know the nature of the problem, the Web address of what you want, and your contact information.

Please go to for current information.

Helping Michigan Parolees With Medical Needs - MPRI Re-entry (Text Version)

Slide presentation from the AHRQ 2009 conference.

On September 14, 2009, Vondie Woodbury made this presentation at the 2009 Annual Conference. Select to access the PowerPoint® presentation (5 MB).

Slide 1


Helping Michigan Parolees With Medical Needs—MPRI Re-entry

A Successful Community Health Pathway
Vondie Woodbury—Director, Coordinated Community Benefit Affairs—Trinity Health Corporation
Director, Community Benefit—Mercy Health Partners
Executive Director, Muskegon Community Health Project

Slide 2


Breaking the Cycle of Crime

  • 95% of all inmates will leave prison
  • 650,000 released nationally every year
  • MI—50,000 inmates living in 42 facilities
  • MI spends $2 billion annually—one of 4 states that spend more on corrections than on higher education
  • 12,000 are paroled annually
  • Half will commit new crimes or violate parole rules
  • In MI 6,000 return to prison annually at a cost of more than $180 million


Slide 3


Breaking the Cycle of Crime

  • In Michigan prior to MPRI:
    • Inmates left prison with a $75 bus ticket
    • 2-week voucher for a cheap hotel
    • Many lack social security card, birth certificate or a state ID
    • No help with substance abuse or mental health issues
    • Parole officers working with 60-80 offenders did not have time to help.
    • 48% of parolees returned to prison


Slide 4


What is MPRI?

  • The Mission of MPRI:
    • ... is to significantly reduce crime and enhance public safety by implementing a seamless system of services for offenders from the time of their entry to prison through their transition, community reintegration and aftercare in their communities.
  • Michigan Department of Corrections


Slide 5


MPRI History

  • Started in 2005 with 8 pilot counties
  • Additional counties (including Muskegon) added in 2007
  • Went statewide 2008
  • Initial funding $12 million
  • FY10 $50 million


Slide 6


Michigan Re-entry

  • 18 County re-entry collaborations
  • $30 M appropriation from State for FY-09
  • Increases to over $50 million in FY-10
  • Contracts are managed locally—county level


Slide 7


Basic Structure and Process of MPRI


Slide 8


Typical MPRI Process

  • A Local Coalition is Established (single or multi-county)
  • Coalition develops semi-annual Action Plan
  • Action Plan approved by MDOC—funded
  • Individual subcontractors responsible for core activities: housing, transportation, job placement/training, mental health and substance abuse
  • MPRI Coordinator is HUB for Multi-functional Collaborative operation


Slide 9


Sample MPRI data

Image: Maps show data from northern Michigan counties.


Slide 10


Muskegon's MPRI Collaborative

  • Goodwill Industries
  • West Michigan Therapy
  • Michigan Rehabilitation Services
  • Department of Human Services
  • Muskegon Community Health Project
  • Department of Corrections & Parole
  • Orchard View Community Ed
  • Community Mental Health
  • Victim's Services
  • Shoreline Prison Facility
  • Local Police Agencies
  • Faith Based Organizations


Slide 11


Parolee Interface

  • 6 months prior to release "in-reach" team meets with parolee in prison; process is explained.
  • Immediately prior to release—exit interview; appointments scheduled.
  • Upon release each contractor coordinates their piece of the puzzle.
  • Payment is based upon successful completion of each part of process (e.g. job placement; a place to live.)


Slide 12


Using Local Health Navigation—Muskegon's Approach


Slide 13


Background MDOC

  • Michigan Prison System Health Care
    • $330 million a year for inmate health care (based on a projected number of 48,000 inmates)
    • Annual health cost per prisoner of $6,600
    • 4,000 prisoners estimated to have chronic diseases
    • 524 estimated to be medically fragile


Slide 14


Why Medical Navigation?

  • 90% of parolees return to community as uninsured without medical home.
  • No medical records returned with parolee.
  • Pharmaceutical support for chronic disease terminated after 30-days
  • Parolees were unaware of medical safety net support structure
  • Significant level of imbedded chronic disease
  • Job retention could be affected


Slide 15


Muskegon's Basic MPRI Health Initiative

  • Incorporated Health Care navigation as part of Muskegon's MPRI collaborative process in 07
    • Only site in state piloting approach
  • Designated community health navigator is part of community in-reach and support team for parole; Health Project is HUB for Health Care Initiative
  • Program expanded 09 to include 11 additional counties


Slide 16


Muskegon's Basic Re-entry Health Initiative Goals

  • Secure Medical Record
  • Conduct Health Assessment
  • Screen for enrollment into Medicaid, FSP, etc.
  • Identify and schedule first appointment for medical home
  • Provide for pharmaceutical assistance
  • Provide chronic disease self management


Slide 17


Action Pathway for Medical Assistance—How Does it Work??

  • STEP ONE: Individual is identified as eligible for parole and the MPRI program


Slide 18



  • STEP TWO: Team schedules/conducts MPRI In-reach at the Prison facility

As a Team they meet with and interview each parolee to determine individual need.

  • Review parolee plan—going home?
  • Are there special considerations—CSC?
  • Process and individuals are introduced


Slide 19



  • STEP TWO (medical only):
  • Health Navigator Meets Privately with the Parolee
    • Makes arrangements to get medical records at release;
    • Conducts health assessment for chronic conditions and medication need
    • Initiates enrollment screening—Medicaid, SSI, FSP, Lion's Vision, etc.


Slide 20



  • STEP TWO —Health Navigator Schedules Medical Appointment
    • Contacts FQHC's, Migrant Clinics, Free Clincs, Private Physicians;
    • Prioritizes parolees with medical conditions
    • Identifies need for medication assistance
    • Within two weeks of release...


Slide 21



  • STEP THREE—Team Schedules and Implements Exit Interview before Release
    • Affirm date of medical appointment
    • Will transportation be an issue?
    • How will medication be handled?


Slide 22


  • STEP FOUR—Medical Navigator meets with parolee—post release.
    • Complete and sign all enrollment applications if necessary (CHW use)
    • Review assessment document—complete if necessary
    • Review pharmaceutical assistance program (Pharmacy CHW use)
    • Re-confirm medical appointment plus any additional medical services warranted (Specialty care, Chronic Disease Self Management, Clinical-AIDs, etc.)


Slide 23



  • STEP FIVE—Medical Navigator confirms that medical appointment kept.
    • Yes?
    • No?—What barriers indicated?
    • If No—follow-up with parolee on rescheduling


Slide 24



  • STEP SIX—Resolution Step

Parolee has medical access.


Slide 25


Disease State of Participants
Health Navigation Participant Demographics

  • 1037 Helped through Health Project since MPRI inception
  • 70% of MPRI clients have a medical issue at release
  • 47% need pharmacy assistance


Slide 26


Disease State of Participants

  • Asthma/Respiratory Disease
  • Hypertension/High Cholesterol
  • Mental Illness: Depression, Anxiety, Psychosis
  • Pain: Chronic, Arthritis, Knee, Back, Ankle
  • Other: Hepatitus C, HIV
  • Diabetes
  • Gastrointestinal: Crohn's Disease, Ulcerative Colitis, Acid Reflux


Slide 27


Disease States Managed by Medication (pharmacy assistance program)

  • Mental Illness—52%
  • Asthma—33%
  • Diabetes—35%
  • Heart Disease—26%


Slide 28


The Value of Health Services for Basic Re-entry

  • Uninsured individuals who are high risk or who have chronic conditions have medical care to improve or sustain health
  • The ability to keep a job can be related to unmanaged health problems
  • The community benefits when parolees succeed in transitioning from prison to home
  • Reduction in recidivism results in lower state costs (28% statewide/11-12% annually in Muskegon)


Slide 29


MPRI Challenge

  • State has recently announced accelerated release process
  • Intention is to save $180 million of $2 billion state corrections budget
  • 15-member parole board handles 375 cases a month
  • Volume and economy places pressure on placement capacity—health, jobs, housing, etc.
  • Opposition to accelerated release process by Prosecuting Attorneys (public safety concerns) may impact process


Slide 30


Assisting the Medically Fragile Parolee


Slide 31


Why Prisons Need a Medically Fragile Program

Most medically fragile prisoners would have been paroled if there was an appropriate community placement

  • Medically Fragile prisoners cost an average of $72,500 annually for health care
  • 524 medically fragile prisoners cost $29M/yr.
  • Community placement cost—$20,000 each
  • The cost savings is $52,500 per prisoner
  • Total savings could be $21M annually


Slide 32


Muskegon's Medically Fragile Re-entry Health Initiative

  • Assists medically fragile individuals who pose little or no risk to communities
    • Individuals who are close to or past their earliest parole dates, or have sentences commuted by the Governor
  • Provides community placement in appropriate care setting
  • Provides Medicaid eligibility and other entitlements
  • Provides transitional funding to health care providers until Medicaid begins


Slide 33


Compassion and fiscal responsibility can work together

Kenneth Anderson, 80, of Iron County was one of the earlier community placements, moving from prison to a nursing home.


Slide 34


The Unique Needs Required for Community Placement of Medically Fragile Prisoners

  • Population has medically-centered needs:
    • SSI eligible to trigger Medicaid coverage
    • Appropriate medical services must be near by
    • Housing with medical support: Nursing Homes; Hospice; etc.
    • Higher end meds
    • CHORE services
    • Family support
    • Parole supervision


Slide 35


The Medically Fragile Program Services

  • Conducting Prison In-reach interview
  • Collecting the Medical Record
  • Providing the Benefit Eligibility Screening
  • Assisting with entitlement applications
  • Contracting for the appropriate Medical Home
  • Providing Corrections with the post-release community placement plan
  • Coordinating with the Parole Office agents
  • Compliance monitoring for 6 months


Slide 36


Muskegon's Medically Fragile Health Profile

  • End stage kidney and liver diseases
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
  • Cancers
  • Severe hypertension
  • Mental illness / Dementia
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Severe Arthritis
  • Huntington's Chorea
  • Parkinson's Disease


Slide 37

The Value of Health Services for Medically Fragile Re-entry
  • Cost to Prison is unsustainable
  • Health care setting is inappropriate
  • Provides dignity at the end-of-life


Slide 38


Additional Information

  • Vondie's phone number and E-mail—231-672-3201 at the Health Project
  • Mail letters to:
    Muskegon Community Health Project
    565 W. Western Avenue
    Muskegon, MI 49440
Current as of December 2009
Internet Citation: Helping Michigan Parolees With Medical Needs - MPRI Re-entry (Text Version). December 2009. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.


The information on this page is archived and provided for reference purposes only.


AHRQ Advancing Excellence in Health Care