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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004

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1 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Your Guide to Choosing Quality Health Care. Rockville, MD: AHRQ, 2001. Available at:

2 Institute of Medicine Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2001.

3 American Cancer Society, Cancer Facts & Figures 2004.

4 Jemal A, Clegg LX, Ward E, Ries LA, Wu X, Jamison PM, Wingo PA, Howe HL, Anderson RN, Edwards BK. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2001, with a special feature regarding survival. Cancer. 2004 Jul 1;101(1):3-27.

5 Jemal A, Tiwari RC, Murray T, Ghafoor A, Samuels A, Ward E, Feuer EJ, Thun MJ. Cancer statistics, 2004. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004 Jan-Feb;54(1):8-29.

6 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Fact Book Fiscal Year 2002. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health; 2003.

7 Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, Mariotto A, Fay MP, Feuer EJ, Edwards BK (Eds.). SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2000. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2003. Available at:

8 Shavers VL, Brown ML. Racial and ethnic disparities in the receipt of cancer treatment. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Mar 6;94(5):334-57.

9 Ward E, Jemal A, Cokkinides V, Singh GK, Cardinez C, Ghafoor A, Thun M. Cancer disparities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. CA Cancer J Clin. 2004 Mar-Apr;54(2):78-93.

10 Singh GK, Miller BA, Hankey BF, Edwards BK. Area Socioeconomic Variations in U.S. Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Stage, Treatment, and Survival, 1975-1999. NCI Cancer Surveillance Monograph Series, Number 4. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2003. NIH Publication No. 03-5417.

11 Trans-HHS Cancer Health Disparities Progress Review Group. Making Cancer Health Disparities History. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 2004.

12 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: general information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2002. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003. Available at: Disclaimer

13 American Diabetes Association. Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2002. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26:917-32.

14 Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Nelson DE, Engelgau MM, Vinicor F, Marks JS. Diabetes trends in the U.S.: 1990-1998. Diabetes Care. 2000 Sep;23(9):1278-83.

15 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes Surveillance, 1999. [Statistics. 1999 surveillance report]. Atlanta: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1999. Available at: (Accessed Nov. 7, 2003).

16 Harris MI, Flegal KM, Cowie CC, Eberhardt MS, Goldstein DE, Little RR, Wiedmeyer HM, Byrd-Holt DD. Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Diabetes Care. 1998 Apr;21(4):518-24.

17 National Quality Forum. National voluntary consensus standards for adults diabetes care: A consensus report. Washington, DC: National Quality Forum; 2002.

18 National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance. National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance Performance Measurement Set for Adult Diabetes. Chicago, IL: NDQIA; 2003.

19 National Kidney Foundation. Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) Clinical Practice Guidelines for Chronic Kidney Disease: Evaluation, Classification and Stratification. Part 2. Background. Available at: Disclaimer

20 U.S. Renal Data System. USRDS 2003 Annual Data Report: Atlas of End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. Available (for download) at:

21 Epstein AM, Ayanian JZ, Keogh JH, Noonan SJ, Armistead N, Cleary PD, Weissman JS, David-Kasdan JA, Carlson D, Fuller J, Marsh D, Conti RM. Racial disparities in access to renal transplantation--clinically appropriate or due to underuse or overuse? N Engl J Med. 2000;343:1537-44.

22 Sehgal AR. Impact of quality improvement efforts on race and sex disparities in hemodialysis. JAMA. 2003 Feb 26;289(8):996-1000.

23 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Morbidity & Mortality: 2004 Chart Book on Cardiovascular, Lung, and Blood Diseases. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health; 2004.

24 Kressin NR, Petersen LA. Racial differences in the use of invasive cardiovascular procedures: Review of the literature and prescription for future research. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Sep 4;135(5):352-66.

25 Schneider EC, Leape LL, Weissman JS, Piana RN, Gatsonis C, Epstein AM. Racial differences in cardiac revascularization rates: does "overuse" explain higher rates among white patients? Ann Intern Med. 2001 Sep 4;135(5):328-37.

26 Carlisle DM, Leape LL, Bickel S, Bell R, Kamberg C, Genovese B, French WJ, Kaushik VS, Mahrer PR, Ellestad MH, Brook RH, Shapiro MF. Underuse and overuse of diagnostic testing for coronary artery disease in patients presenting with new-onset chest pain. Am J Med. 1999 Apr;106(4):391-8.

27 Hannan EL, van Ryn M, Burke J, Stone D, Kumar D, Arani D, Pierce W, Rafii S, Sanborn TA, Sharma S, Slater J, DeBuono BA. Access to coronary artery bypass surgery by race/ethnicity and gender among patients who are appropriate for surgery. Med Care. 1999 Jan;37(1):68-77.

28 Canto JG, Allison JJ, Kiefe CI, Fincher C, Farmer R, Sekar P, Person S, Weissman NW. Relation of race and sex to the use of reperfusion therapy in Medicare beneficiaries with acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2000 Apr 13;342(15):1094-1100.

29 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Data fact sheet: asthma statistics. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; 1999. Available at: (PDF Help).

30 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2002: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2002. Table 32.

31 Krauss N. Statistical Brief #13: Asthma treatment: use of medications and devices, 2000. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2003. Available at:

32 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. Surveillance reports: reported tuberculosis in the United States; 2002. Available at:

33 Krishnan JA, Diette GB, Skinner EA, Clark BD, Steinwachs D, Wu AW. Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jul 9;161(13):1660-8.

34 Zoratti EM, Havstad S, Rodriguez J, Robens-Paradise Y, LaFata JE, McCarthy B. Health service use by African Americans and Caucasians with asthma in a managed care setting. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Aug;158(2):371-7.

35 National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Strategy for Addressing Health Disparities FY 2002-2006. Available at: (Accessed 3/3/03).

36 Davis MM. Race-based immunization recommendations and the potential to reduce health disparities. JAMA. 2004;291:2253-2255.

37 Flannery B, Schrag S, Bennett NM, et al. Impact of childhood vaccination on racial disparities in invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. JAMA. 2004;291:2196-2203.

38 Jones A. The National Nursing Home Survey: 1999 summary. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat. 2002; 13(152).

39 AARP. Nursing Homes. Washington, DC: AARP; 2001.

40 Gabrel CS. Characteristics of elderly nursing home current residents and discharges: Data from the 1997 National Nursing Home Survey. Adv Data. 2000 Apr 25;(312):1-15.

41 Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K, Landi F, Gatsonis C, Dunlop R, Lipsitz L, Steel K, Mor V. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Drug Use via Epidemiology. JAMA. 1998 Jun 17;279(23):1877-82.

42 Teno JM, Kabumoto G, Wetle T, Roy J, Mor V. Daily pain that was excruciating at some time in the previous week: Prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2004; 52:762-767.

43 Harada ND, Chun A, Chiu V, Pakalniskis A. Patterns of rehabilitation utilization after hip fracture in acute hospitals and skilled nursing facilities. Med Care. 2000 Nov;38(11):1119-30.

44 Mor V, Zinn J, Angelelli, J, Teno JM, Miller SC. Driven to tiers: socioeconomic and racial disparities in the quality of nursing home care. Milbank Q. 2004 Jun 82(2):227-56.

45 National Center for Health Statistics. Current patient trends: Number of current home health care patients, United States, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000. Available at:

46 Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA. 1998 Apr 15;279(15):1200-5.

47 Lesar TS, Lomaestro B, Pohl H. Medication-prescribing errors in a teaching hospital. A 9-year experience. Arch Intern Med. 1997 Jul 28;157(14):1569-76.

48 Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, Lloyd JF, Burke JP. Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. 1997 Jan 22-29;277(4):301-6.

49 Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, Petersen LA, Small SD, Servi D, Laffel G, Sweitzer BJ, Shea BF, Hallisey R, et al. Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events. Implications for prevention. ADE Prevention Study Group. JAMA. 1995 Jul 5;274(1):29-34.

50 Gurwitz JH, Field TS, Harrold LR, Rothschild J, Debellis K, Seger AC, Cadoret C, Fish LS, Garber L, Kelleher M, Bates DW. Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events among older persons in the ambulatory setting. JAMA. 2003 Mar 5;289(9):1107-16.

51 Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To Err Is Human: Building A Safer Health System. Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1999.

52 Burt CW, McCaig LF. Trends in hospital emergency department utilization: United States, 1992-99. Vital Health Stat 13. 2001 Sep;(150):1-34.

53 McCaig LF, Ly N. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2000 outpatient department summary. Adv Data. 2002 Jun 4;(327):1-27.

54 Shactman D, Altman SH. Utilization and Overcrowding of Hospital Emergency Departments. Waltham, MA: Brandeis University; 2002.

55 Institute of Medicine, Committee on the Future of Primary Care. Primary Care: America's Health in a New Era. Donaldson MS, Yordy KD, Lohr KN, Vanselow NA (Eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1996.

56 De Maeseneer JM, De Prins L, Gosset C, Heyerick J. Provider continuity in family medicine: does it make a difference for total health care costs? Ann Fam Med. 2003 Sept-Oct; 1(3): 131-3.



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