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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2004

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1 Institute of Medicine, Committee on Monitoring Access to Personal Health Care Services. Access to Health Care in America. Millman M. (Ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1993.

2 Bierman AS, Magari ES, Jette AM, Splaine M, Wasson JH. Assessing access as a first step toward improving the quality of care for very old adults. J Ambul Care Manage. 1998 Jul;21(3):17-26.

3 Mills RJ, Bhandari S. Health insurance coverage in the United States: 2002. Current Population Reports P60-223. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2003.

4 Institute of Medicine. Care Without Coverage: Too Little, Too Late. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2002.

5 McWilliams JM, Zaslavsky AM, Meara E, Ayanian JZ. Health insurance coverage and mortality among the near-elderly. Health Aff (Millwood). 2004 Jul-Aug;23(4):223-33.

6 Self-assessed health status and selected behavioral risk factors among persons with and without health-care coverage--United States, 1994-1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998 Mar 13;47(9):176-80.

7 Franks P, Clancy CM, Gold MR, Nutting PA. Health insurance and subjective health status: data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure survey. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep;83(9):1295-9.

8 Miller W, Vigdor ER, Manning WG. Covering the uninsured: what is it worth? Health Aff (Millwood) - Web Exclusive. 2004 Mar 31;W4:157-167.

9 Freeman HE, Aiken LH, Blendon RJ, Corey CR. Uninsured working-age adults: characteristics and consequences. Health Serv Res. 1990 Feb;24(6):811-23.

10 Hadley J. Sicker and Poorer: The Consequences of Being Uninsured. Paper prepared for the Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute; May 2002 (updated February 2003). Executive summary available at: Disclaimer

11 Hadley J, Steinberg EP, Feder J. Comparison of uninsured and privately insured hospital patients. Condition on admission, resource use, and outcome. JAMA. 1991 Jan 16;265(3):374-9.

12 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.) 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; November 2000, p. 45.

13 The Importance of Having a Usual Source of Health Care. One-Pager Number 2, January 2000; The Robert Graham Center: Policy Studies in Family Practice and Primary Care; January 2000. Available at: Disclaimer

14 The Importance of Primary Care Physicians as the Usual Source of Healthcare in the Achievement of Prevention Goals. One-Pager No. 4. Washington, DC: The Robert Graham Center: Policy Studies in Family Practice and Primary Care; February 2000. Available at: Disclaimer

15 Grumbach K, Selby JV, Damberg C, Bindman AB, Quesenberry C Jr, Truman A, Uratsu C. Resolving the gatekeeper conundrum: what patients value in primary care and referrals to specialists. JAMA. 1999 Jul 21;282(3):261-6.

16 Sarver JH, Cydulka RK, Baker DW. Usual source of care and nonurgent emergency department use. Acad Emerg Med. 2002 Sep;9(9):916-23.

17 Brousseau DC, Bergholte J, Gorelick MH. The effect of prior interactions with a primary care provider on nonurgent pediatric emergency department use. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004 Jan;158(1):78-82.

18 Shin HB, Bruno R. Language use and English-speaking ability: 2000. Census 2000 Brief. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau; 2003.

19 Kirsch I, Jungeblut A, Jenkins L, Kolstad A. Adult literacy in America: A first look at the findings of the National Adult Literacy Survey. 3rd edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education; 2002.

20 Selden CR, Zorn M, Ratzan S, Parker RM, compilers. Health Literacy: January 1990 through October 1999 [bibliography]. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine, Reference Section; February 2000, p. vi. (Current Bibliographies in Medicine; CBM 2000-1). Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.), p. 11-20.

21 Williams MV, Baker DW, Parker RM, Nurss JR. Relationship of functional health literacy to patients' knowledge of their chronic disease. A study of patients with hypertension and diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Jan 26;158(2):166-72. Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.), p. 11-9.

22 Williams MV, Baker DW, Honig EG, Lee TM, Nowlan A. Inadequate literacy is a barrier to asthma knowledge and self-care. Chest. 1998 Oct;114(4):1008-15. Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.), p. 11-9.

23 Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, et al. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. Am J Public Health. 1997 Jun;87(6):1027-30. Cited in: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010 (2nd ed.), p. 11 - 9.

24 Berkman ND, DeWalt D, Pignone MP, Sheridan SL, Lohr KN, Lux L, Sutton SF, Swinson T, Bonito AJ. Literacy and Health Outcomes. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 87. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2004.

25 Committee on Health Literacy, Institute of Medicine. Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.

26 Trevino FM, Moss AJ. Health Indicators for Hispanic, Black and White Americans. September 1984. 88pp. (PHS) 84-1576. PB87-156956. PC A05 MF A02.

27 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report of the Secretary's Task Force on Black and Minority Health. Washington, D.C: DHHS, 1985.

28 Institute of Medicine. Access to Health Care in America. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press, 1993.

29 National Quality Forum. Improving Healthcare Quality for Minority Patients. Washington, D.C: NQR, 2002.

30 Institute of Medicine, Committee on Guidance for Designing a National Healthcare Disparities Report. Guidance for the National Healthcare Disparities Report. Swift EK (Ed.). Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2002. p. 20.

31 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2002: With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Hyattsville, MD: NCHS, 2002.

32 Krauss NA, Machlin S, Kass BL. Use of health care services, 1996. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1999. MEPS Findings No. 7. AHCPR Pub. No. 99-0018.

33 Strunk BC, Ginsburg PB, Gabel JR. Tracking health care costs: Growth accelerates again in 2001. Health Aff (Millwood) - Web Exclusive. 2002 Sept 25; W299-W310.

34 Berk ML, Monheit AC. The concentration of health care expenditures, revisited. Health Affairs. 2001; 20:9-18.

35 Midwest Business Group on Health. Reducing the Costs of Poor-Quality Health Care Through Responsible Purchasing Leadership; 2003.

36 Gaskin DJ, Hoffman C. Racial and ethnic differences in preventable hospitalizations across 10 states. Med Care Res Rev. 2000;57 Suppl 1:85-107.

37 Blustein J, Hanson K, Shea S. Preventable hospitalizations and socioeconomic status. Health Aff (Millwood). 1998 Mar-Apr;17(2):177-89.

38 Culler SD, Parchman ML, Przybylski M. Factors related to potentially preventable hospitalizations among the elderly. Med Care. 1998 Jun;36(6):804-17.

39 Kozak LJ, Hall MJ, Owings MF. Trends in avoidable hospitalizations, 1980-1998. Health Aff (Millwood). 2001 Mar-Apr;20(2):225-32.

40 Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, Wittchen HU, Kendler KS. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1994 Jan;51(1):8-19.

41 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health; Results; 2004. Available at:

42 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration and National Institutes of Health. Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 1999. Online version available at:

43 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of the Surgeon General. Mental Health: Culture, Race, Ethnicity. Supplement to Mental Health: Report of the Surgeon General. Executive Summary; 2001. Available at: .

44 Melfi CA, Croghan TW, Hanna MP, Robinson RL. Racial variation in antidepressant treatment in a Medicaid population. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Jan;61(1):16-21.

45 Kales HC, Blow FC, Bingham CR, Roberts JC, Copeland LA, Mellow AM. Race, psychiatric diagnosis, and mental health care utilization in older patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2000 Fall;8(4):301-9.

46 Segal SP, Bola JR, Watson MA. Race, quality of care, and antipsychotic prescribing practices in psychiatric emergency services. Psychiatr Serv. 1996 Mar;47(3):282-6.

47 Chung H, Mahler JC, Kakuma T. Racial differences in treatment of psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatr Serv. 1995 Jun;46(6):586-91.

48 Fleming PL, et al.. HIV Prevalence in the United States, 2000. 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, WA, Feb. 24-28, 2002. Abstract 11.

49 HIV and AIDS--United States, 1981-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001 Jun 1;50(21):430-4.

50 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Prevention Strategic Plan through 2005. Atlanta, GA: CDC, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention; January 2001. Available at:

51 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2002;14:1-40 [inclusive page numbers]. Available at:

52 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS among African Americans. Key facts. Available at:

53 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2002; 14:1-40. Available at:

54 Minino AM, Arias E, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Smith BL. Deaths: final data for 2000. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2002 Sep 16;50(15):1-119.

55 Moore RD, Stanton D, Gopalan R, Chaisson RE. Racial differences in the use of drug therapy for HIV disease in an urban community. N Engl J Med. 1994 Mar 17;330(11):763-8.

56 Shapiro MF, Morton SC, McCaffrey DF, Senterfitt JW, Fleishman JA, Perlman JF, Athey LA, Keesey JW, Goldman DP, Berry SH, Bozzette SA. Variations in the care of HIV-infected adults in the United States: results from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study. JAMA. 1999 Jun 23-30;281(24):2305-15.

57 Bennett CL, Horner RD, Weinstein RA, Dickinson GM, DeHovitz JA, Cohn SE, Kessler HA, Jacobson J, Goetz MB, Simberkoff M, et al. Racial differences in care among hospitalized patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in Chicago, New York, Los Angeles, Miami, and Raleigh-Durham. Arch Intern Med. 1995 Aug 7-21;155(15):1586-92.

58 HIV/AIDS Bureau. Clinical Management of the HIV-Infected Adult: A Manual for Midlevel Clinicians. Rockville, MD: Health Resources and Services Administration, 2003.



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