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2005 National Healthcare Quality Report

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1 Institute of Medicine. To err is human: building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 1999.

2 Zhan C, Miller MR. Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA 2003 Oct 8;290(14):1868-74.

3 Institute of Medicine. Patient safety: achieving a new standard of care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2004.

4 General Accounting Office. Adverse drug events: substantial problem but magnitude uncertain. Statement of Janet Heinrich. Testimony before the Committe on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. Washington, DC; 2000 February 1. Available at: [PDF Help]. Accessed June 8, 2004.

5 Zhan C, Sangl J, Bierman AS, et al. Potentially inappropriate medication use in the community-dwelling elderly: findings from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. JAMA 2001 Dec 12;286(22):2823-9.

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Chapter 4. Timeliness Adverse Events and Postoperative Complications of Care



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