References and Included Studies

Health Care Efficiency Measures: Identification, Categorization, and Evaluation

1 Grosskopf S, Margaritis D, Valdmanis V. Comparing teaching and non-teaching hospitals: a frontier approach (teaching vs. non-teaching hospitals). Health Care Manag Sci 2001; 4(2):83-90.

2 Phillips JF. Do managerial efficiency and social responsibility drive long-term financial performance of not-for-profit hospitals before acquisition? J Health Care Finance 1999;25(4):67-76.

3 Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2001.

4 Institute of Medicine. Envisioning the National Health Care Quality Report. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2001.

5 Hussey PS, Anderson GF, Osborn R, et al. How does the quality of care compare in five countries? Health Aff (Millwood) 2004;23(3):89-99.

6 The Leapfrog Group and Brides to Excellence. Measuring Provider Efficiency: Version 1.0. available at URL: Accessed 8/5/2005.

7 Palmer S, Torgerson DJ. Economic notes: definitions of efficiency. BMJ 1999;318(7191):1136.

8 AQA. AQA principles of “efficiency” measures. available at URL: Accessed 2/14/2007.

9 Chassin MR, Kosecoff J, Park RE, et al. Does inappropriate use explain geographic variations in the use of health care services? A study of three procedures. JAMA 1987;258(18):2533-7.

10 Jacobson JM. Promoting and measuring productivity in the HMO. Top Health Care Financ 1992;19( 2):75-82.

11 Halm EA, Lee C, Chassin MR. Is volume related to outcome in health care? A systematic review and methodologic critique of the literature. Ann Intern Med 2002;137(6):511-20.

12 Dranove D, Satterthwaite MA. The industrial Organization of Health-Care Markets. In: Culyer AJ, Newhouse JP. (Editors) Handbook of Health Economics. New York: Elsevier; 2000.

13 Zweifel PMW. Moral Hazard and Consumer Incentives in Health Care. In: Culyer AJ, Newhouse JP. Handbook of Health Economics. New York: Elsevier; 2000.

14 Kahn JG, Kronick R, Kreger M, et al. The cost of health insurance administration in California: estimates for insurers, physicians, and hospitals. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005;24(6):1629-39.

15 Medical Group Management Association. Administrative Simplification for Medical Group Practices. 2005.

16 Hackbarth G, Milgate K. Using quality incentives to drive physician adoption of health information technology. Medicare should help physicians overcome the barriers to adoption but should not simply pay the bill. Health Aff (Millwood) 2005;24(5):1147-9.

17 Arrow K. Uncertainty and the Welfare Economics of Medical Care. American Economic Review 1963;53:941-73.

18 Charnes A, Cooper WW, Rhodes E. Measuring the Efficiency of Decision Making Units. European Journal of Operational Research 1978;2:429-44.

19 Farrell MJ. The Measurement of Productive Efficiency. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 1957;Series A(120):253-90.

20 Newhouse JP. Frontier estimation: how useful a tool for health economics? J Health Econ 1994;13( 3):317-22.

21 Aigner D, Lovell CK, Schmidt P. Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models. Journal of Econometrics 1977;6:21-37.

22 Greene W. Maximum likelihood estimation of econometric frontier functions. Journal of Econometrics 1980;13:27-56.

23 Greene W. The econometric approach to efficiency analysis. In: Fried HO, Knox Lovell CA, Schmidt SS. (Editors) The Measurement of Productive Efficiency. New York: Oxford University Press; 1992.

24 Caves DW, Christensen LR, Diewert EW. The economic theory of index numbers and the measurement of input, output, and productivity. Econometrica 1982;50(6):1393-1414.

25 Smith C, Cowan C, Heffler S, et al. National health spending in 2004: recent slowdown led by prescription drug spending. Health Aff (Millwood) 2006;25(1):186-96.

26 Dewar DM, Lambrinos J. Does managed care more efficiently allocate resources to older patients in critical care settings? Cost Qual 2000;6(2): 18-26, 37.

27 Zuckerman S, Hadley J, Iezzoni L. Measuring Hospital Efficiency with Frontier Cost Functions. Journal of Health Economics 1994;13(3):255-80.

28 Rosko MD, Chilingerian JA. Estimating hospital inefficiency: does case mix matter? J Med Syst 1999;23(1):57-71.

29 Rosko MD. Impact of internal and external environmental pressures on hospital inefficiency. Health Care Manag Sci 1999;2(2):63-74.

30 Albritton TA, Miller MD, Johnson MH, et al. Using relative value units to measure faculty clinical productivity. J Gen Intern Med 1997;12(11):715-7.

31 Garg ML, Boero JF, Christiansen RG, et al. Primary care teaching physicians' losses of productivity and revenue at three ambulatory care centers. Acad Med 1991;66(6):348-53.

32 Ozcan YA. Physician benchmarking: measuring variation in practice behavior in treatment of otitis media. Health Care Manag Sci 1998;1(1):5-17.

33 Kralewski JE, Rich EC, Feldman R, et al. The effects of medical group practice and physician payment methods on costs of care. Health Serv Res 2000;35(3):591-613.

34 Thomas JW. Should episode-based economic profiles be risk adjusted to account for differences in patients' health risks? Health Services Research 2006;41(2):581-98.

35 Cutler DM, McClellan M, Newhouse JP. How does managed care do it? Rand J Econ 2000;31(3):526-48.

36 Cutler DMMM, Newhouse JP. Price and Productivity in Managed Care Insurance. 1998.

37 Ozcan YA. Efficiency of hospital-service production in local markets - the balance-sheet of U.S. medical armament. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 1995;29(2):139-50.

38 Ozcan YA, Yeh SC, McCollum D, et al. Trends in labor efficiency among American hospital markets. Annals of Operations Research 1996;67:61-81.

39 Ashby J, Guterman S, Greene T. An analysis of hospital productivity and product change. Health Aff (Millwood) 2000;19(5):197-205.

40 Skinner J, Fisher E, Wennberg JE. The Efficiency of Medicare. 2001.

41 Wan TT, Wang BB. Integrated healthcare networks' performance: a growth curve modeling approach. Health Care Manag Sci 2003;6(2):117-24.

42 Wan TT, Lin BY, Ma A. Integration mechanisms and hospital efficiency in integrated health care delivery systems. J Med Syst 2002;26(2):127-43.

43 Yeh J, White KR, Ozcan YA. Efficiency evaluation of community-based youth services in Virginia. Community Ment Health J 1997;33(6):487-99.

44 Larson EH, Hart LG, Ballweg R. National estimates of physician assistant productivity. J Allied Health 2001;30(3):146-52.

45 Boston DW. Clinical productivity indicators for a dental general practice residency program. Spec Care Dentist 1991;11(5):173-8.

46 Ozcan YA, Cotter JJ. An assessment of efficiency of area agencies on aging in Virginia through data envelopment analysis. Gerontologist 1994;34(3):363-70.

47 Tyler LH, Ozcan YA, Wogen SE. Mental health case management and technical efficiency. J Med Syst 1995;19(5):413-23.

48 DiJerome L, Dunham-Taylor J, Ash D, et al. Evaluating cost center productivity. Nurs Econ 1999;17(6):334-40.

49 Ozgen H, Ozcan YA. A national study of efficiency for dialysis centers: an examination of market competition and facility characteristics for production of multiple dialysis outputs. Health Serv Res 2002;37(3):711-32.

50 Okunade AA. Cost-Output Relation, Technological Progress, and Clinical Activity Mix of U.S. Hospital Pharmacies. Journal of Productivity Analysis 2001;16(2):167-93.

51 Andes S, Metzger LM, Kralewski J, et al. Measuring efficiency of physician practices using data envelopment analysis. Manag Care 2002; 11(11):48-54.

52 Schinnar AP, Kamis-Gould E, Delucia N, et al. Organizational determinants of efficiency and effectiveness in mental health partial care programs. Health Serv Res 1990;25(2):387-420.

53 Ozcan YA, Begun JW, McKinney MM. Benchmarking organ procurement organizations: a national study. Health Serv Res 1999;34(4):855-74; discussion 875-8.

54 Alexander JA, Wheeler JR, Nahra TA, et al. Managed care and technical efficiency in outpatient substance abuse treatment units. J Behav Health Serv Res 1998;25(4):377-96.

55 Mansley EC, Dunet DO, May DS, et al. Variation in average costs among federally sponsored state-organized cancer detection programs: economies of scale? Med Decis Making 2002;22(5 Suppl):S67-79.

56 Valdmanis VG. Ownership and technical efficiency of hospitals. Med Care 1990;28(6):552-61.

57 Iezzoni LI. Risk adjustment for measuring health care outcomes. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press; 1994.

58 Thomas JW, Grazier KW, Ward K. Economic profiling of primary care physicians: consistency among risk-adjusted measures. Health Services Research 2004;39(4 Pt 1):985- 1003.

59 Thomas JW, Ward K. Economic profiling of physician specialists: use of outlier treatment and episode attribution rules. Inquiry 2006;43(3):271-82.

60 Thomas JW. Should episode-based economic profiles be risk adjusted to account for differences in patients' health risks? Health Services Research 2006;41(2):581-98.

61 Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MEDPAC). Report to the Congress: Increasing the Value of Medicare. Accessed 2/14/2007.

62 Bryce CL, Engberg JB, Wholey DR. Comparing the agreement among alternative models in evaluating HMO efficiency. Health Serv Res 2000;35(2):509-28.

Page last reviewed April 2008
Internet Citation: References and Included Studies: Health Care Efficiency Measures: Identification, Categorization, and Evaluation. April 2008. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD.