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National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2013

Chapter 2: Text Descriptions

Figure 2.1. Women ages 50-74 who reported they had a mammogram within the past 2 years, by income and ethnicity, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010

Income / Ethnicity 2000 2003 2005 2008 2010
Poor 62.1% 60.2% 53.2% 58.6% 56.2%
Low Income 67.2% 66.4% 60.5% 60.2% 58.3%
Middle Income 75.6% 75.6% 72.4% 70.6% 71.1%
High Income 86.4% 83.9% 80.5% 84.1% 83.0%
White 78.5% 76.6% 73.7% 73.9% 73.3%
Black 76.1% 75.7% 70.7% 77.1% 72.7%
Hispanic 68.6% 70.8% 65.0% 68.3% 69.9%
Total 77.2% 75.7% 72.0% 73.7% 72.4%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized women ages 50-74.
Note: White and Black are non-Hispanic. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 88%
 

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Figure 2.2. Women ages 50-74 who reported they had a mammogram within the past 2 years, by English proficiency, preferred language, and ethnicity, California, 2009

English Proficiency / Preferred Language / Ethnicity Percent
Total 86.3
English Only 86.9
Well / Very Well 87.3
Not Well / Not at All 81.7
English 86.9
Spanish 85.7
Chinese 73.0
Korean 57.0
Non-Hispanic White 87.0
Chinese 78.8
Korean 64.1
Vietnamese 93.6

Source: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized women ages 50-74 in California.

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Figure 2.3. Age-adjusted rate of advanced stage breast cancer per 100,000 women age 40 and over, by ethnicity and race, 2000-2009

Race / Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Non Hispanic White (per 100,000) 96.5 97.1 95.6 92.4 94.3 93.1 94.0 94.5 94.4 92.6 22.1
Hispanic (per 100,000) 79.9 78.7 79.0 74.1 76.1 81.0 77.6 78.6 79.3 75.0 14.4
White (per 100,000) 95.6 96.5 94.1 90.4 92.1 91.6 91.7 91.6 91.4 89.6 NA
Black (per 100,000) 99.5 98.8 102.5 103.1 106.5 104.1 107.7 110.6 111.3 108.4 NA
AI/AN (per 100,000) 53.6 53.4 58.3 48.7 52.6 55.9 53.9 61.3 53.2 50.6 NA
API (per 100,000) 61.8 59.2 62.4 60.2 64.3 62.9 61.8 64.3 65.2 61.7 NA

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, National Program of Cancer Registries, United States Cancer Statistics. Includes National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registries meeting United States Cancer Statistics publication criteria for every year. Covers 90.1% of the total U.S. population. States excluded are: Arkansas, District of Columbia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Virginia.
Denominator: Women age 40 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Advanced stage breast cancer is defined as local stage with tumor size greater than 2 cm diameter, regional stage or distant stage.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 81 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.4. Women with clinical Stage I-IIb breast cancer who received axillary node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of lumpectomy or mastectomy, by race/ethnicity and income, 2004-2010

Race / Ethnicity / Income 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Hispanic 89.3% 91.5% 92.0% 93.7% 94.3% 95.0% 94.9%
Black 88.2% 90.5% 91.6% 92.8% 94.2% 93.9% 94.6%
White 87.9% 89.9% 90.9% 92.3% 93.8% 94.1% 94.4%
Mexican 93.6% 92.3% 93.5% 95.9% 95.6% 95.3% 95.0%
Cuban 83.9% 84.8% 89.7% 93.9% 90.5% 91.5% 96.8%
Puerto Rican 84.3% 89.7% 87.1% 92.6% 93.0% 92.0% 97.3%
Poor 85.9% 89.7% 91.2% 89.6% 94.9% 94.8% 95.5%
Low Income 88.2% 90.1% 90.7% 92.6% 93.8% 94.3% 94.5%
Middle Income 87.8% 89.9% 91.2% 92.3% 93.9% 93.8% 94.4%
High Income 88.7% 90.3% 90.9% 91.5% 93.5% 93.5% 94.2%
Total 88.2% 90.1% 90.9% 92.4% 93.8% 94.1% 94.5%

Source: Commission on Cancer, American College of Surgeons and American Cancer Society, National Cancer Data Base, 2004-2010.
Denominator: Women with Stage I-IIb breast cancer undergoing lumpectomy or mastectomy.
Note: White and Black are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 97%
 

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Figure 2.5. Women under age 70 treated for breast cancer with breast-conserving surgery who received radiation therapy within 1 year of diagnosis, by race/ethnicity and income, 2004-2010

Race / Ethnicity / Income 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Hispanic 72.1% 70.1% 70.7% 72.6% 74.9% 67.8% 70.2%
Black 76.5% 75.8% 78.1% 79.3% 81.3% 79.6% 75.9%
White 84.0% 83.5% 85.1% 86.0% 87.2% 84.1% 83.7%
Mexican 77.0% 75.3% 72.5% 72.6% 79.2% 71.4% 70.2%
Cuban 72.4% 65.3% 68.1% 80.0% 82.7% 57.7% 57.1%
Puerto Rican 69.5% 79.6% 80.6% 78.6% 82.5% 74.2% 84.4%
Poor 74.0% 77.4% 77.3% 75.0% 79.0% 71.9% 77.1%
Low Income 82.3% 81.7% 83.4% 84.3% 85.5% 82.3% 81.8%
Middle Income 83.2% 83.0% 84.4% 84.7% 85.7% 83.2% 82.3%
High Income 81.9% 81.5% 82.6% 85.1% 85.4% 79.9% 80.4%
Total 82.5% 82.0% 83.5% 84.3% 85.5% 82.4% 81.9%

Source: Commission on Cancer, American College of Surgeons and American Cancer Society, National Cancer Data Base, 2004-2010.
Denominator: Women under age 70 undergoing breast-conserving surgery.
Note: White and Black are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races. Data for 2008 and 2009 may be lower due to the timing of data collected. Radiation can be administered 1 year from diagnosis, so registries may not complete radiation information at the time of case abstraction.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 94%
 

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Figure 2.6. Age-adjusted breast cancer deaths per 100,000 women, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2010

Race / Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
AI/AN (per 100,000) 13.6 11.8 13.8 14.0 14.8 15.2 12.8 12.7 12.6 12.5 11.5
API (per 100,000) 12.3 12.9 12.8 12.6 12.7 12.2 12.1 11.1 11.7 11.4 11.9
Black (per 100,000) 34.5 34.4 34.0 34.0 32.2 32.8 31.6 31.4 31.1 30.5 30.3
White (per 100,000) 26.3 25.5 25.0 24.7 23.9 23.4 22.9 22.3 21.9 21.7 21.5
Hispanic (per 100,000) 16.9 16.3 15.5 16.1 15.6 15.0 15.0 14.5 14.3 14.7 14.4
Non-Hispanic White (per 100,000) 26.8 26.0 25.6 25.2 24.5 24.0 23.5 23.0 22.5 22.3 22.1
Total
(per 100,000)
26.8 26.0 25.6 25.3 24.4 24.1 23.5 22.9 22.5 NA NA

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. female population.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Total rate is age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 17 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.7. Female breast cancer incidence and mortality by race/ethnicity, Hawaii, 1995-2000

Race / Ethnicity Mortality rate per 100,000 Incidence Rate per 100,000
All Races 18.1 128.3
Native Hawaiian 31.0 162.4
Filipino 14.2 93.1
Chinese 14.9 109.8
Japanese 12.2 133.2
Caucasian 25.4 149.6

Source: American Cancer Society, 2004.

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Figure 2.8. Adults who reported receiving a blood pressure measurement in the last 2 years and can state whether their blood pressure was normal or high, by race/ethnicity and sex, 2008

Sex White Black Hispanic
Total 93.6% 93.5% 89.0%
Female 95.4% 95.2% 92.8%
Male 91.7% 91.6% 85.0%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2008.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 18 and over.
Note: Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
 

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Figure 2.9. Adults who were diagnosed with high blood pressure, by English proficiency, preferred language, ethnicity, and Asian ethnicity, California, 2011-2012

  Percent
Total 27.2
English Only 30.4
Well / Very Well 19.9
Not Well / Not at All 29.6
English 27.3
Spanish 27.0
Chinese 20.6
Vietnamese 33.8
Korean 35.4
White 30.3
Black 40.5
Mexican 23.5
Puerto Rican 33.0
Central American 27.2
South American 15.5
Chinese 18.7
Korean 24.9
Vietnamese 25.1
Filipino 25.7

Source: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2011-2012.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White and Black are non-Hispanic.

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Figure 2.10. Adults currently diagnosed with heart disease who had emergency room visits in the past 12 months, by English proficiency, preferred language, and ethnicity, California, 2011-2012

  Percent
Total 17.9
English Only 16.2
Well / Very Well 21.9
Not Well / Not at All 21.0
English 17.3
Spanish 19.6
White 15.0
Black 23.8
Mexican 23.8

Source: University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2011-2012.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White and Black are non-Hispanic.

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Figure 2.11. Inpatient deaths per 1,000 adult hospital admissions with heart attack, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2010

 

  2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
White (per 1,000) 100.2 97.2 88.2 83.3 78.3 72.4 66.3 59.9 54.5 52.8
Black (per 1,000) 95.2 88.2 84.0 75.2 67.6 60.8 57.6 48.4 47.6 48.6
Hispanic (per 1,000) 99.5 94.1 88.8 80.8 77.4 72.5 65.3 59.0 59.4 55.4
API (per 1,000) 91.3 96.7 85.6 85.6 77.0 83.5 72.8 61.1 59.0 56.8
Q1 (Lowest) (per 1,000) 105.9 97.6 90.9 87.4 78.8 74.3 68.7 61.6 54.5 54.1
Q2 (per 1,000) 100.8 94.5 90.2 82.9 79.2 73.7 67.1 60.1 56.8 53.0
Q3 (per 1,000) 98.5 90.3 83.5 78.0 74.2 69.9 66.0 56.1 53.1 48.6
Q4 (Highest) (per 1,000) 94.6 90.7 80.1 76.8 72.2 67.9 61.8 56.2 51.1 48.9
Total (per 1,000) 100.4 93.6 86.7 81.7 76.3 71.6 66.1 58.8 54.1 51.4

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; Q1 represents the lowest income quartile and Q4 represents the highest income quartile based on the median income of a patient's ZIP Code of residence.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1, 2001-2010.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over admitted to a non-Federal community hospital in the United States with acute myocardial infarction as principal discharge diagnosis.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age, major diagnostic category, all payer refined-diagnosis related group risk of mortality score, and transfers into the hospital. White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 48 per 1,000
 

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Figure 2.12. Adult admissions for congestive heart failure per 100,000 population, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2001-2010

  2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
White (per 100,000) 414.6 414.0 372.8 372.7 365.4 347.0 326.3 315.7 306.6 284.6
Black (per 100,000) 1,083.7 1,041.3 859.2 938.1 846.7 862.4 828.6 766.3 742.3 717.4
Hispanic (per 100,000) 483.9 608.3 616.9 592.5 503.5 436.5 408.6 339.4 336.8 348.8
API (per 100,000) 309.5 307.9 253.6 289.7 224.8 213.5 216.9 214.7 199.0 214.8
Q1 (Lowest) (per 100,000) 610.9 599.6 598.9 576.0 557.2 566.1 511.4 490.3 480.2 447.7
Q2 (per 100,000) 521.4 518.3 463.5 450.3 419.4 413.0 388.3 373.7 363.4 333.7
Q3 (per 100,000) 427.5 444.1 397.5 384.1 377.8 359.4 335.9 327.4 322.0 301.9
Q4 (Highest) (per 100,000) 413.3 376.7 334.9 347.1 349.1 333.8 296.0 299.2 292.8 256.6
Total (per 100,000) 481.9 488.6 435.2 443.1 425.7 406.9 385.8 367.3 355.6 332.3

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; Q1 represents the lowest income quartile and Q4 represents the highest income quartile based on the median income of a patient’s ZIP Code of residence.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, State Inpatient Databases disparities analysis file, and AHRQ Quality Indicators modified version 4.1, 2001-2010.
Denominator: U.S. resident population age 18 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age and sex. White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 195 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.13. Adults who reported receiving a cholesterol check in the last 5 years, by race and insurance, 2011

 

Race Insured Uninsured
White 82.7% 48.8%
NHOPI 75.1% 34.8%

Key: NHOPI = Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over.

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Figure 2.14. Adult admissions for congestive heart failure per 100,000 population, State of Hawaii, by granular ethnicity, 2010

Ethnicity Admissions per 100,000
White 177.52
Native Hawaiian 478.67
Samoan 2,664.23
Other Pacific Islander 1,021.36
Chinese 190.2
Filipino 380.11
Japanese 197.12
Korean 247.26

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Hawaii State Inpatient Databases and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1, 2010.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over in Hawaii based on the Hawaii Health Survey.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age and gender using the total U.S. population for 2000 as the standard population.
 

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Figure 2.15. Excess number of hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, by race/ethnicity, 2010

 

Race / Ethnicity Expected at Best Rate Excess
White 293,553 165,126
Black 49,399 145,161
Asian or Pacific Islander 20,139 3,605
Hispanic 59,714 54,643

Key: API = Asian and Pacific Islander.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1, 2010.
Note: White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.16. Excess number of hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, by area income, 2010

 

Area Income Expected at Best Rate Excess
First Quartile (Lowest) 107,214 156,285
Second Quartile 105,036 87,390
Third Quartile 106,570 70,083
Fourth Quartile (Highest) 107,513 43,915

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample, and AHRQ Quality Indicators, modified version 4.1, 2010.

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Figure 2.17. New end stage renal disease patients age 18 and over who saw a nephrologist at least 12 months prior to initiation of renal replacement therapy, by race and ethnicity, 2005-2010

Race / Ethnicity 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
White 27.0% 27.7% 28.5% 29.9% 29.7% 31.0%
Black 21.8% 22.9% 23.9% 24.5% 24.8% 25.3%
API 24.7% 24.8% 27.1% 27.9% 28.7% 29.9%
AI/AN 24.5% 26.4% 24.6% 27.9% 26.7% 24.7%
Hispanic 19.0% 20.6% 20.4% 21.3% 21.6% 22.6%
Non-Hispanic 26.3% 27.1% 28.1% 29.4% 29.4% 30.4%
Total 25.4% 26.2% 27.1% 28.3% 28.3% 29.3%

Key: API: Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN: American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2005-2010.
Denominator: Denominator includes all new ESRD patients age 18 and over with valid CMS-2728 Medical Evidence form, and a nonmissing value for the question: did you see a nephrologist at all?
Numerator: Patients who saw a nephrologist at least 12 months prior to initiation of renal replacement therapy.
Note: Hispanic and non-Hispanic include all races.
2010 Achievable Benchmark: 51%
 

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Figure 2.18. Dialysis patients under age 70 who were registered for transplantation within a year of ESRD initiation, by race and ethnicity, 2001-2009

Race / Ethnicity 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Total 14.3% 14.5% 14.7% 15.4% 15.9% 17.0% 17.0% 17.0% 17.4%
White 16.1% 16.3% 16.6% 16.8% 17.6% 18.5% 18.2% 18.1% 18.3%
Black 10.3% 10.7% 10.6% 11.7% 12.1% 13.1% 13.4% 13.4% 13.9%
API 27.8% 26.8% 27.6% 29.7% 26.4% 30.1% 32.2% 32.2% 32.5%
AI/AN 8.4% 11.1% 9.2% 11.0% 11.4% 11.5% 13.1% 13.9% 13.3%
Hispanic 13.7% 14.2% 14.6% 14.5% 15.9% 17.8% 17.6% 17.6% 18.1%
Non-Hispanic 14.4% 14.6% 14.7% 15.5% 15.9% 16.8% 16.9% 16.9% 17.2%

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2001-2009.
Denominator: New end stage renal disease patients (receiving hemodialysis or periotoneal dialysis) in the given year who were under age 70 and had a known State of residence in the 50 States or the District of Columbia.
Numerator: Patients who were either wait-listed or received a deceased-donor kidney within 1 year of their ESRD initiation date.
Note: Patients who received a transplant at any time from a live donor or residing in American territories were excluded. Percentages are estimated using the Kaplan-Meier methodology. Hispanic and non-Hispanic include all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 27%
 

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Figure 2.19. Adults age 40 and over with diagnosed diabetes who reported receiving four recommended services for diabetes in the calendar year (2+ hemoglobin A1c tests, foot exam, dilated eye exam, and flu shot), by race/ethnicity and income, 2008-2010

Race / Ethnicity / Income 2008 2009 2010
Total 21.0% 23.2% 24.6%
White 22.7% 26.9% 26.2%
Black 16.6% 18.3% 20.0%
Hispanic 18.7% 13.3% 20.7%
Poor 16.2% 15.4% 20.8%
Low Income 17.9% 17.8% 22.6%
Middle Income 17.0% 20.1% 23.2%
High Income 27.8% 32.9% 28.6%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with diagnosed diabetes, age 40 and over.
Note: Data include people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using two age groups: 40-59 and 60 and over. White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
 

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Figure 2.20. People with current diabetes whose doctor helped to develop a diabetes management plan, by Asian and Hispanic subpopulations and English proficiency, California, 2011-2012

California Total Asian Total Chinese Vietnamese South Asian Well / Very Well Not Well / Not at All
77.5% 67.0% 63.5% 74.3% 46.2% 74.0% 48.4%

 

Hispanic Total Mexican Central American English only Well / Very Well Not Well / Not at All
68.8% 67.3% 69.4% 88.5% 75.9% 57.8%

 

Source: UCLA, Center for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2011-2012.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population in California.
Note: The Asian subpopulation sample size for "English Only" speakers did not meet requirements for statistical reliability, data quality, or confidentiality and is not included.
 

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Figure 2.21. Adults with diabetes receiving diabetes management education, by ethnicity, Hawaii, 2011

Year State Native Hawaiians Filipino White Japanese Others
2000-2002 48.0% 47.0% 46.0% 56.0% 44.0% 47.0%
2005-2007 48.0% 53.0% 48.0% 50.0% 41.0% 50.0%
2008-2010 52.0% 57.0% 49.0% 59.0% 42.0% 60.0%

Source: Hawaii State Department of Health, 2011.
Note: All rates are 3-year averages.

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Figure 2.22. Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 population, age 18 and over, by race/ethnicity and area income, 2004-2010

  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total (per 100,000) 22.1 21.0 20.3 20.9 20.6 20.9 20.6
White (per 100,000) 12.9 13.1 12.2 12.7 13.6 13.5 12.6
Black (per 100,000) 70.7 63.2 65.7 65.0 61.4 62.4 63.7
API (per 100,000) 10.8 8.0 7.2 10.0 9.1 7.8 7.0
Hispanic (per 100,000) 51.0 40.7 37.8 37.3 30.7 34.0 34.6
Q1 (Lowest) (per 100,000) 41.3 38.4 41.4 37.8 40.7 40.8 34.5
Q2 (per 100,000) 22.6 20.1 22.3 22.5 22.7 22.5 20.5
Q3 (per 100,000) 14.7 14.5 14.5 15.0 15.6 15.6 13.9
Q4 (Highest) (per 100,000) 9.7 10.8 9.9 9.4 11.0 10.4 8.8

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander. Q1 represents the lowest income quartile and Q4 represents the highest income quartile based on the median income of a patient's ZIP Code of residence.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Nationwide Inpatient Sample and AHRQ Quality Indicators, version 4.1, 2004-2010.
Denominator: U.S. resident population age 18 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 5 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.23. Hospital admissions for uncontrolled diabetes per 100,000 population in IHS, Tribal, and contract hospitals, age 18 and over, by age group, 2003-2011

Age Group 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Total (per 100,000) 37.8 31.4 29.3 26.3 23.8 17.3 23.9 22.4 18.3
18-44 (per 100,000) 20.5 15.3 14.4 14.5 14.9 10.3 15.1 14.3 9.6
45-64 (per 100,000) 51.7 47.7 37.8 36.5 32.6 23.8 27.4 28.8 24.6
65+ (per 100,000) 62.5 50.1 56.2 40.9 32.2 24.5 41.1 31.7 31.9

Source: Indian Health Service, Office of Information Technology/National Patient Information Reporting System, National Data Warehouse, Workload and Population Data Mart, 2003-2011.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Total estimates are age adjusted using the total U.S. population for 2000 as the U.S. standard population. Service population does not include the Portland and California regions.

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Figure 2.24. Adults age 20 and over with end stage renal disease due to diabetes, per million population, by race and ethnicity, 2003-2010

Race / Ethnicity 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total (per Million) 155.3 156.0 156.1 160.3 155.2 153.4 154.1 151.7
White (per Million) 117.5 119.7 119.7 123.4 119.9 118.0 119.6 119.4
Black (per Million) 452.6 439.5 442.8 447.5 429.2 425.6 419.6 400.4
API (per Million) 176.2 179.2 179.9 198.5 191.5 190.7 193.5 187.3
AI/AN (per Million) 404.8 405.7 361.0 332.3 341.2 343.2 357.6 317.5
Total (per Million) 155.3 156.0 156.1 160.3 155.2 153.4 154.1 151.7
Hispanic (per Million) 328.4 323.4 315.4 325.2 315.7 315.3 306.4 307.6
Non-Hispanic (per Million) 141.7 142.8 143.5 146.9 142.1 140.0 141.5 139.2

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, U.S. Renal Data System, 2003-2010.
Denominator: U.S. resident population.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are adjusted by age, sex, race, and interactions of age, sex and race. When reporting is by race and ethnicity, the adjustment is by age, sex, and interactions of age and sex. Hispanic and non-Hispanic include all races.
2010 Achievable Benchmark: 71 per Million
 

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Figure 2.25. New AIDS cases per 100,000 population age 13 and over, by race/ethnicity, 2000-2010

Race / Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total (per 100,000) 17.4 16.7 16.5 16.6 15.9 15.0 14.2 13.6 13.0 12.3 11.5
White (per 100,000) 7.0 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.5
Black (per 100,000) 73.8 71.6 70.4 70.2 66.3 60.7 56.4 54.3 52.4 49.0 47.4
API (per 100,000) 3.3 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.3 3.6 3.3
AI/AN (per 100,000) 10.0 9.3 9.7 9.8 9.5 9.1 7.3 6.7 8.4 6.7 7.8
NHOPI (per 100,000) 11.9 NA NA 16.5 13.3 13.6 14.3 13.5 11.3 13.4 9.1
Hispanic (per 100,000) 28.4 26.7 25.2 26.0 23.6 22.6 21.5 20.0 18.7 18.1 15.5

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander, AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native, NHOPI= Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, HIV/AIDS Surveillance System, 2000-2010.
Denominator: U.S. population age 13 and over.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. White, Black, AI/AN, API and NHOPI are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races.
2010 Achievable Benchmark: 2.8 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.26. HIV patients who received recommended care, by race/ethnicity and sex, 2010

Race / Ethnicity 2 or More Outpatient Visits 2 or More CD4 Tests HAART PCP MAC
Total 89.5% 81.2% 94.6% 93.6% 91.4%
White 88.0% 83.1% 95.2% 90.7% 85.7%
Black 89.5% 78.5% 94.0% 95.0% 92.5%
Hispanic 91.7% 85.1% 95.4% 93.7% 93.3%

 

 

Sex 2 or More Outpatient Visits 2 or More CD4 Tests HAART PCP MAC
Male 89.3% 81.0% 94.8% 93.8% 90.9%
Female 89.9% 81.6% 93.9% 93.0% 92.5%

 

 

Key: HAART = highly active antiretroviral therapy; PCP = Pneumocystis pneumonia; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex.
Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HIV Research Network, 2010.
Note: For HAART measure, adult HIV patients had to be enrolled in an HIV Network clinic, receive at least one CD4 test, and have at least one outpatient visit in addition to having at least one CD4 test result of 350 or less.

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Figure 2.27. Adult HIV patients with viral suppression for first test in the year, by ethnicity and sex, 2008-2010

Ethnicity / Sex 2008 2009 2010
Total 57.7% 68.5% 73.0%
White 64.7% 75.1% 80.4%
Black 52.5% 64.4% 67.8%
Hispanic 61.1% 69.5% 74.7%
Male 59.0% 69.6% 74.7%
Female 54.4% 65.8% 68.7%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HIV Research Network, 2008-2010.
Denominator: Includes adult HIV patients enrolled in an HIV Research Network medical practice prior to the year. Patients who died, didn’t have an outpatient visit, or didn’t have a CD4 test in the year are excluded.
Note: Viral load suppression means HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. White and Black are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races.
 

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Figure 2.28. HIV infection deaths per 100,000 population, by race and ethnicity, 2000-2010

Race / Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
AI\AN (per 100,000) 2.2 2.7 2.2 2.5 2.9 2.7 2.4 2.6 2.1 2 1.6
API (per 100,000) 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4
Black (per 100,000) 23.3 22.8 22.5 21.3 20.4 19.4 18.6 17.3 15.3 14 11.6
White (per 100,000) 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.4
Total (per 100,000) 5.2 5 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.2 4 3.7 3.3 3 2.6
White (per 100,000) 2.2 2.1 2.1 2 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.1
Hispanic (per 100,000) 6.7 6.2 5.8 5.9 5.3 4.7 4.5 4.1 3.6 3.3 2.8

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander, AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality, 2000-2010.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Rates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 0.9 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.29. HIV clients in Ryan White-funded care who were virally suppressed (most recent HIV RNA <200 copies/mL), by race/ethnicity and household income, 2010

Race / Ethnicity / Income Percent, 2010
Total 69.5
White 76.3
Black 63.3
Asian 78.8
NHOPI 70.5
AI\AN 70.4
Hispanic 73.6
Poor 67.3
Low Income 76.0
Middle Income 79.2
High Income 72.1

Key: AI/AN: American Indian or Alaska Native; NHOPI: Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
Source: Health Resources and Services Administration, 2010.
Denominator: HIV-positive clients all ages who received Ryan White-funded HIV care during the year and had visit date and viral load data available. Clients with missing viral load are excluded.
Note: White, Black, AI/AN, Asian, NHOPI are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races. Negative/poor refers to household incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor/low, from the poverty line to just below 200 percent of the poverty line; middle, 200 percent to just below 300 percent of the poverty line; and high, and 300 percent of the poverty line and over.
 

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Figure 2.30. HIV-positive clients in Ryan White-funded care who were retained in HIV care (at least 2 ambulatory visit dates at least 90 days apart), by race/ethnicity and household income, 2010

Race / Ethnicity / Income Percent, 2010
Total 75.7
White 76.6
Black 74.5
Asian 76.1
NHOPI 69.8
AI\AN 73.6
Hispanic 78.0
Poor 76.1
Low Income 80.9
Middle Income 80.7
High Income 78.8

Key: AI/AN: American Indian or Alaska Native; NHOPI: Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
Source: Health Resources and Services Administration, 2010.
Denominator: Total estimated number of HIV-positive clients all ages who received at least one Ryan White-funded care visit during the year and have visit dates available.
Note: White, Black, AI/AN, Asian, NHOPI are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races. Negative/poor refers to household incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor/low, from the poverty line to just below 200 percent of the poverty line; middle, 200 percent to just below 300 percent of the poverty line; and high, 300 percent of the poverty line and over.
 

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Figure 2.31. Adults with a major depressive episode in the past year who received treatment for depression in the past year, by race/ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race / Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010 2011
Total 68.3 % 64.4 % 68.2 % 68.1 %
White 71.8 % 68.7 % 71.8 % 73.1 %
Black 56.1 % 53.2 % 54.5 % 54.3 %
Hispanic 57.4 % 49.3 % 64.2 % 53.2 %

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2011.
Denominator: Adults age 18 and over and adolescents ages 12-17 with a major depressive episode in the past year.
Note: Major depressive episode is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of the symptoms of depression described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Treatment for depression is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication in the past year for depression. White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.32. Adolescents with a major depressive episode in the past year who received treatment for depression in the past year, by race/ethnicity, 2008-2011

Race / Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010 2011
Total (Adolescents, ages 12-17) 37.7% 34.7% 37.8% 38.4%
White 43.1% 37.6% 41.1% 41.4%
Black 32.6% 25.4% 23.0% 41.0%
Hispanic 30.3% 33.1% 38.4% 29.4%

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2008-2011.
Denominator: Adolescents ages 12-17 with a major depressive episode in the past year.
Note: Major depressive episode is defined as a period of at least 2 weeks when a person experienced a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities and had a majority of the symptoms of depression described in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Treatment for depression is defined as seeing or talking to a medical doctor or other professional or using prescription medication in the past year for depression. White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.33. Suicide deaths per 100,000 population age 12 and over, by race and ethnicity, 2008-2010

Race / Ethnicity 2008 2009 2010
Total 14.0% 14.2% 14.6%
White 15.7% 15.9% 16.4%
Black 6.3% 6.2% 6.2%
API 6.7% 7.1% 7.6%
AI/AN 12.2% 12.1% 13.1%
Non-Hispanic White 17.3% 17.5% 18.1%
Hispanic 6.7% 7.0% 7.1%

Key: API = Asian and Pacific Islander; AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Vital Statistics System-Mortality, 2008-2010.
Note: For this measure, lower rates are better. Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 9 per 100,000
 

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Figure 2.34. People age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or an alcohol problem and who received such treatment at a specialty facility in the last 12 months, by race/ethnicity and sex, 2002-2011

Race / Ethnicity / Sex 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
White 10.1% 8.2% 8.6% 8.5% 9.6% 9.9% 10.3% 10.8% 11.7% 10.5%
Black 15.3% 13.1% 17.3% 18.4% 14.2% 18.2% 13.2% 14.7% 12.8% 14.3%
Hispanic 7.4% 6.4% 9.7% 11.7% 14.3% 6.0% 5.4% 7.4% 8.1% 10.2%
Total 10.3% 8.5% 9.9% 10.0% 10.8% 10.4% 9.9% 10.7% 11.2% 10.8%
Male 9.9% 8.8% 10.2% 10.2% 10.7% 10.9% 10.3% 11.2% 11.0% 10.7%
Female 11.0% 7.9% 9.4% 9.5% 10.9% 9.3% 9.3% 9.7% 11.4% 10.9%

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2011.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 12 and over who needed treatment for illicit drug use or an alcohol problem.
Note: Treatment refers to treatment at a specialty facility, such as a drug and alcohol inpatient and/or outpatient rehabilitation facility, inpatient hospital setting, or mental health center. White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2011 Achievable Benchmark: 15%
 

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Figure 2.35. People age 12 and over treated for substance abuse who completed treatment course, by race/ethnicity and education, 2005-2010

Race / Ethnicity / Education 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total 45.0% 47.5% 45.1% 46.6% 46.7% 44.1%
White 46.7% 49.2% 46.6% 48.3% 48.3% 45.3%
Black 40.4% 43.6% 41.0% 42.5% 43.8% 40.6%
Hispanic 46.0% 46.7% 45.8% 46.5% 47.1% 44.4%
<High School 41.0% 43.1% 40.6% 42.0% 42.4% 39.9%
High School Grad 46.3% 48.7% 46.1% 47.7% 48.2% 45.4%
Any College 50.0% 52.7% 50.7% 52.3% 51.9% 48.8%

Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005-2010.
Denominator: Discharges age 12 and over from publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities.
Note: White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 74%
 

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Figure 2.36. People age 12 and over treated for substance abuse who completed treatment course, by race/ethnicity, 2005-2010

 

Race / Ethnicity Female Male
Total 12.8% 8.6%
Hispanic 11.7% 6.5%
Black 13.0% 12.9%
White 13.0% 8.5%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. People were considered to have doctor-diagnosed arthritis if they answered yes to "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia?" Hispanic includes all races. White and Black are non-Hispanic.

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Figure 2.37. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they had effective, evidence-based arthritis education as an integral part of the management of their condition, by ethnicity and age, 2009

Ethnicity 18-44 45-64 65+
Total 56.4% 59.6% 55.4%
Hispanic 64.6% 68.3% 59.8%
Black 57.6% 64.9% 61.6%
White 55.5% 57.7% 54.2%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Hispanic includes all races. White and Black are non-Hispanic. People were considered to have doctor-diagnosed arthritis if they answered yes to "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia?"

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Figure 2.38. Adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about physical activity or exercise, by  income and race/ethnicity, 2009

 

Race / Ethnicity High income Middle income Low income Poor
Total 44.4% 40.0% 40.4% 46.2%
Hispanic 41.1% 55.9% 55.9% 52.0%
Black 53.6% 49.4% 41.6% 50.0%
White 44.2% 35.9% 37.1% 43.3%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2009.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized overweight and obese adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis.
Note: Estimates are age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. White and Black are non-Hispanic. Hispanic includes all races. People were considered to have doctor-diagnosed arthritis if they answered yes to "Have you ever been told by a doctor or other health professional that you have some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia?" For both men and women, overweight is BMI ≥ 25 to <30; obese is BMI ≥ 30.
 

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Figure 2.39. Overweight and obese adults with doctor-diagnosed arthritis who reported they received health care provider counseling about weight reduction, by ethnicity/race, 2009

Race / Ethnicity 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
White 55.8% 56.7% 58.8% 57.9% 59.2% 58.4% 59.9% 60.0% 62.6% 63.3% 61.9% 65.1%
Black 30.9% 33.7% 37.4% 37.2% 39.2% 40.4% 36.8% 44.4% 44.8% 44.2% 45.9% 47.8%
Asian 42.2% 28.2% 32.5% 35.4% 34.7% 37.0% 37.8% 34.5% 46.4% 46.0% 48.4% 41.1%
Total 53.4% 54.2% 56.2% 55.7% 57.0% 56.3% 57.3% 57.8% 60.3% 61.0% 60.1% 62.7%
Non-Hispanic White 56.9% 57.9% 60.4% 59.6% 60.9% 60.5% 61.9% 62.1% 64.6% 65.0% 63.7% 66.8%
Hispanic 30.5% 33.0% 27.6% 31.5% 34.1% 29.0% 33.2% 32.4% 37.0% 40.5% 39.4% 44.5%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, National Health Interview Survey, 2000-2011.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population age 65 and over.
Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Benchmark is derived from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System; see Chapter 1, Introduction and Methods, for details.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 67%
 

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Figure 2.40. State variation in disparities related to education: adults age 65 and over who reported ever receiving pneumococcal immunization, 2010

Biggest Disparity Quartile Second Quartile Third Quartile Smallest Disparity Quartile
California Alabama Colorado Idaho
Connecticut Arizona Delaware Iowa
Georgia Arkansas Maryland Massachusetts
Hawaii Florida Michigan Nebraska
Kansas Illinois Minnesota New Hampshire
Kentucky Indiana Montana North Dakota
Louisiana Maine New Mexico Oklahoma
Mississippi Missouri Oregon South Dakota
New Jersey Nevada Rhode Island Utah
New York North Carolina South Carolina Vermont
Texas Ohio Tennessee Wisconsin
NA Pennsylvania Washington Wyoming
NA Virginia West Virginia NA
Missing: Alaska      

Key: Biggest Disparity Quartile identifies States with the largest differences in rates of pneumococcal immunization between adults with less than a high school education and adults who graduated from college; Smallest Disparity Quartile identifies States with the smallest differences in rates of pneumococcal immunization between adults with less than a high school education and adults who graduated from college.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2010.
 

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Figure 2.41. Hospital patients age 50 and over with pneumonia who received influenza immunization status assessment or provision, by race/ethnicity, 2005-2011

 

Race / Ethnicity 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Total 55.2% 68.5% 78.7% 84.7% 90.2% 92.1% 94.1%
White 57.9% 70.7% 80.4% 86.2% 91.0% 92.9% 94.8%
Black 43.9% 60.0% 72.1% 79.7% 86.2% 89.5% 92.3%
Hispanic 41.5% 58.8% 70.9% 77.1% 88.0% 87.4% 89.6%
AI/AN 56.4% 58.8% 69.0% 74.6% 80.1% 84.9% 87.9%
Asian 43.9% 58.5% 71.5% 80.8% 87.3% 90.6% 93.5%

Key: AI/AN = American Indian or Alaska Native.
Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Medicare Quality Improvement Organization Program, 2005-2011.
Denominator: Patients age 50 and over discharged October-February with a principal discharge diagnosis of pneumonia or a principal discharge diagnosis of either septicemia or respiratory failure and secondary diagnosis of pneumonia.
Note: White, Black, AI/AN, and Asian are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2011 Achievable Benchmark: 97%
 

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Figure 2.42. Long-stay nursing home residents who were assessed and given influenza and pneumococcal immunization, by race/ethnicity, 2011

 

Race / Ethnicity Influenza Pneumococcal
Total 89.5% 93.3%
White 90.4% 94.3%
Black 86.0% 89.6%
Asian 90.4% 93.9%
NHOPI 89.0% 91.9%
AI/AN 87.5% 90.4%
>1 Race 88.5% 92.1%
Hispanic 86.9% 89.9%

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Minimum Data Set, 2011. Data are from the third quarter of each calendar year.
Denominator: All long-stay residents in Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing home facilities.

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Figure 2.43. Patients with tuberculosis who completed a curative course of treatment within 1 year of initiation of treatment, by race/ethnicity and place of birth, 2000-2009

Year White Black API Hispanic Total Foreign Born
2000 81.2% 80.7% 78.6% 79.9% 80.2% 79.1%
2001 82.2% 81.2% 80.4% 78.5% 80.5% 80.0%
2002 83.1% 80.8% 81.3% 79.5% 80.9% 80.9%
2003 82.8% 81.8% 81.8% 80.1% 81.5% 81.4%
2004 83.9% 82.9% 83.3% 80.0% 82.3% 81.7%
2005 83.7% 83.6% 81.5% 82.5% 82.8% 81.9%
2006 85.2% 83.3% 84.5% 81.8% 83.5% 83.4%
2007 85.0% 86.7% 83.4% 82.6% 84.4% 83.4%
2008 87.6% 86.4% 85.1% 81.4% 84.7% 83.3%
2009 88.0% 87.1% 85.7% 84.4% 86.1% 84.8%

Key: API = Asian or Pacific Islander.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, 2000-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population treated for tuberculosis.
Note: White, Black, and API are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 94%
 

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Figure 2.44. Patients with tuberculosis who completed a curative course of treatment within 1 year of initiation of treatment, by Asian and Pacific Islander and Hispanic granular ethnicities, 2008-2009

 

Race / Ethnicity 2008 2009
Korean 83.3% 94.9%
Vietnamese 84.4% 92.0%
Asian Indian 84.5% 84.8%
Filipino 85.3% 87.1%
Chinese 85.9% 93.6%
Other Asian 85.7% 83.9%
Native Hawaiian 82.4% 90.1%
Other Pacific Islander 80.9% 89.7%
Mexican 79.4% 80.9%
Cuban 91.9% 93.8%
Puerto Rican 93.8% 90.4%
Other Hispanic 82.5% 87.3%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, 2008-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population treated for tuberculosis.
2008 Achievable Benchmark: 94%
 

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Figure 2.45. People with current asthma who report taking preventive asthma medicine daily or almost daily, by race/ethnicity and family income, 2003-2010

 

Race / Ethnicity 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
Total 29.6% 29.7% 31.2% 30.9% 28.3% 25.9% 25.1% 26.5%
White 29.7% 30.9% 34.5% 33.9% 29.8% 28.0% 27.0% 28.9%
Black 29.8% 30.6% 28.4% 25.6% 26.3% 20.2% 22.3% 19.7%
Hispanic 29.5% 27.3% 21.6% 23.0% 25.0% 24.5% 21.7% 21.5%
High Income 35.0% 33.9% 37.7% 32.0% 32.8% 30.1% 30.7% 31.7%
Middle Income 29.3% 26.6% 29.1% 29.8% 29.8% 24.4% 23.7% 24.9%
Low Income 25.1% 26.7% 27.3% 28.3% 23.8% 24.6% 23.9% 23.9%
Poor 27.9% 30.5% 25.9% 31.5% 23.0% 23.5% 20.1% 22.1%

Source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2003-2010.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population with current asthma.
Note: Age adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using four age groups: 0-17, 18-44, 45-64, and 65 and over. People with current asthma reported that they still had asthma or had an asthma attack in the last 12 months. White and Black are non-Hispanic; Hispanic includes all races.

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Figure 2.46. People with current asthma who received written asthma management plans from their health provider, by race/ethnicity and family income, 2008

Income White Black Hispanic
Total 32.7% 42.4% 28.4%
Poor 26.8% 33.4% 36.1%
Low Income 30.6% 41.9% 26.3%
Middle Income 34.5% 47.2% 30.8%
High Income 34.8% 51.7% 24.8%

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Tuberculosis Surveillance System, 2008-2009.
Denominator: U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population treated for tuberculosis.

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Figure 2.47. People with current asthma whose doctor helped them to develop an asthma management plan, by Asian and Hispanic subgroups and English proficiency, California, 2011-2012

California Total Asian Total Chinese Filipino Vietnamese South Asian English Only Well / Very Well Not Well / Not at All
71.5 58.1% 62.1% 65.5% 56.2% 55.7% 56.1% 51.0% 35.1%

 

Hispanic Total Mexican Central American English only Well / Very Well Not Well / Not at All
68.0% 68.7% 59.7% 74.3% 62.9% 50.6%

 

Source: UCLA, Centers for Health Policy Research, California Health Interview Survey, 2011-12.
Denominator: Civilian noninstitutionalized population in California.
 

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Page last reviewed May 2014
Page originally created May 2014
Internet Citation: Chapter 2: Text Descriptions. Content last reviewed May 2014. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhdr13/chap2-txt.html

 

The information on this page is archived and provided for reference purposes only.

 

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