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Evaluation of Hospital Disaster Drills: A Module-Based Approach

Public Health Emergency Preparedness

This resource was part of AHRQ's Public Health Emergency Preparedness program, which was discontinued on June 30, 2011, in a realignment of Federal efforts.

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  1. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals: The Official Handbook. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources; 2003. p. EC-21.
  2. Levi L, Bregman D, Geva H, et al. Hospital disaster management simulation system. Prehospital Disaster Med 1998; 13(1):29-34.
  3. Gretenkort P, Harke H, Blazejak J, et al. Interface between hospital and fire authorities—a concept for management of incidents in hospitals. Prehospital Disaster Med 2002; 17(1):42-7.
  4. Burns KA. Experience in the use of gaming and simulation as an evaluation tool for nurses. J Contin Educ Nurs 1984; 15(6):213-7.
  5. Tur-Kaspa I, Lev EI, Hendler I, et al. Preparing hospitals for toxicological mass casualties events. Crit Care Med 1999; 27(5):1004-8.
  6. Gofrit ON, Leibovici D, Shemer J, et al. The efficacy of integrating "smart simulated casualties" in hospital disaster drills. Prehospital Disaster Med 1997; 12(2):97-101.
  7. Lau PF, Lau CC. A disaster drill in Hong Kong. Accid Emerg Nurs 1997; 5(1):34-8.
  8. Gray D. Disaster plan education: how we made and tested a video. J Accid Emerg Med 1996; 13(1):21-2.
  9. Cook L. Hospital disaster drill game: a strategy for teaching disaster protocols to hospital staff. J Emerg Nurs 1990; 16(4):269-73.
  10. Baughman KS, Calvert DR. Internal disaster drill critique. J Emerg Nurs 1990; 16(4):240-1.
  11. Chobin N, Engle L. Are you ready for an ethylene oxide spill? J Healthc Mater Manage 1989; 7(3):56-7, 60.
  12. Weston CJ. The operating theatre's on fire. Health Serv Manage 1988; 84(3):20-3.
  13. Eisner ME, Waxman K, Mason GR. Evaluation of possible patient survival in a mock airplane disaster. Am J Surg 1985; 150(3):321-3.
  14. Paris PM, Stewart RD, Pelton GH, et al. Triage success in disasters: dynamic victim-tracking cards. Am J Emerg Med 1985; 3(4):323-6.
  15. Inglesby TV, Grossman R, O'Toole T. A plague on your city: observations from TOPOFF. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32(3):436-45.
  16. Halstead MA. Fire drill in the operating room. Role playing as a learning tool. AORN J 1993; 58(4):697-706.
  17. Levy K, Aghababian RV, Hirsch EF, et al. An Internet-based exercise as a component of an overall training program addressing medical aspects of radiation emergency management. Prehospital Disaster Med 2000; 15(2):18-25.
  18. Classic KL, Knutson AH, Smith GD. Radiation safety role in institutional disaster planning. Health Phys 2000; 78(5 Suppl):S35-9.
  19. Maxwell C, Cherneski M. Post-disaster drill analysis. Using victim-tracking cards. J Emerg Med Serv 1987; 12(2):43-6.
  20. Saxena K, Cicero JJ, Hass WF. Chemical disaster drill in the State of Minnesota. Minn Med 1986; 69(3):137-9.
  21. Menczer LF. The Hartford disaster exercise. N Engl J Med 1968; 278(15):822-4.
  22. Fishel ER. Exercise "Med-Ex" 73. Md State Med J 1974; 23(9):46-8.
  23. Hsu E, Jenckes MW, Catlett CL, Robinson KA, Feuerstein CJ, Cosgrove SE, Green G, Guedelhoefer OC, Bass EB. Training of Hospital Staff to Respond to a Mass Casualty Incident. Available at:
  24. The HEICS plan. Available at: Accessed 2003 Feb 28.
  25. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals: The Official Handbook. Oakbrook Terrace, IL: Joint Commission Resources; 2003. p. EC-9.
  26. Catlett C, Perl T, Jenckes MW, et al. Training of Clinicians for Public Health Events Relevant to Bioterrorism Preparedness. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 51. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2002 Jan. AHRQ Publication No. 02-E011. Available at:

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