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Research Activities

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No. 189, November/December 1995

Table of Contents

About Research Activities

Feature Story

Research on BPH and Prostate Cancer Takes Center Stage


Health Care Decisionmaking
   Quality-of-life issues complicate decisions about prostate cancer
   Aggressive treatment for localized prostate cancer may be unwarranted in older men
   Health services research plays a pivotal role in health care decisionmaking

Medical Effectiveness/Outcomes Research
   AMI PORT examines regional variations in heart attack treatments and outcomes and the use of angiography in elderly patients
   Recent findings from the Ischemic Heart Disease PORT
   Three-rescuer CPR shown to be more effective than standard two-rescuer CPR
   Stroke PORT publishes latest findings
   Researchers examine outcomes of back pain treatments provided by chiropractors, surgeons, and general physicians
   PORT researchers examine prenatal zinc supplementation and other factors affecting birthweight

Hospital Systems and Quality Care
   Complication rates may not reflect hospital quality of care for cardiac bypass surgery patients
   Greater ICU use does not necessarily translate into fewer hospital deaths
   Nearly three-quarters of ICU patients in acute renal failure requiring dialysis die in the hospital

Health Care Costs and Financing
   Working poor unlikely to receive employment-related insurance
   Researchers provide new estimates of the underinsured younger than 65 years of age
   Nonprofit hospitals respond to Medicare's PPS with higher prices for private payers
   Health plans that restrict choice of provider attract healthier members
   HMOs enroll younger members than fee-for-service plans
   Direct costs for TB exceed $700 million per year
   Tort laws and other factors influence dentists' decisions to carry more malpractice insurance

HIV/AIDS Research
   Course of HIV infection not related to sex, race, drug use, or socioeconomic status
   Researchers examine health care use and outcomes among HIV-infected women
   Inpatient care for PCP varies according to insurance status and hospital characteristics
   Publicly insured, HIV-infected patients are much less likely to undergo bronchoscopy to confirm PCP
   Recent studies question readiness of primary care physicians to care for HIV-infected patients
   In rating doctors, teens express special concerns about HIV transmission and confidentiality

Minority and Rural Health
   Wide variations found in hospitalization patterns for blacks and whites
   Ethnicity affects individual and family roles in terminal illness
   Medicaid reimbursement and malpractice premiums do not determine which rural family doctors deliver babies
   Study finds AHCPR's depression guidelines to be useful for rural primary care practices

Health Care Delivery
   One-third of back pain sufferers seek care from chiropractors instead of physicians
   Use of formal home care depends on level of impairment and presence of family support
   Physician practice style determines the number of patients seen per hour
   Half of physicians relocate to other States after completing residency training

Regular Features

AHCPR News and Notes
   Internet "surfers" discover the ease of accessing AHCPR-supported guidelines
   Disease prevention experts call for more counseling, better targeted screening

   Consumer materials now available on using AZT to lower risk of mother-to-baby HIV transmission
   New grants awarded for study of health care markets
   AHSR announces February 15 deadline for abstracts

Research Briefs
   The Columbia registry of information and utilization management trials
   The American Urological Association symptom index: Does mode of administration affect its psychometric properties?
   Constructing a lifetime nursing home use data base from a sample of discharges
   Heterogeneity in meta-analysis of data from epidemiologic studies
   Accountability for clinical preventive services
   Managed care and rural America
   Alcohol use before and after traumatic head injury
   Biased comparisons of lung cancer survival across geographic areas
   Comparison of a disease-specific and a generic severity of illness measure for patients with community-acquired pneumonia
   The changing distribution of a major surgical procedure across hospitals
   Surveying consumer satisfaction to assess managed-care quality
   Reducing nursing home use through community long-term care
   Predicting cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions to cotrimoxazole in HIV-infected individuals receiving primary Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis
   Organizational strategies for implementing clinical guidelines
   Incremental value of exercise electrocardiography and thallium-201 testing in men and women for the presence and extent of coronary artery disease
   Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with sciatica
   An integer programming model to limit hospital selection in studies with repeated sampling
   Facilitating random assignment in a community health education project
   Measuring patient satisfaction with physicians among older and diseased adults in a primary care municipal outpatient setting
   Computerizing guidelines to improve care and patient outcomes
   Ontology-based configuration of problem-solving methods and generation of knowledge-acquisition tools
   Exploratory research synthesis: Methodological considerations for addressing limitations in data quality

AHCPR Publication No. 96-0032
Current as of December 1995

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